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WILLIAM HENRY WINDER (1775-1824) 
By Joseph Wood 

Brigadier General, U. S. Army, from March 12, 1813, to January 15, 1815. 
Portrait owned by his great grandson, John Henry Winder, Esquire. 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. XXXIX SEPTEMBER, 1944 No. 3 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND 
AT BALTIMORE, IN THE WAR OF 1812 

By Ralph Robinson 

That Major General Samuel Smith assumed command of the 
Army, gathered for the defense of Baltimore in September, 1814, 
at the instance of a committee soliciting his services, is well 
known, but the conflict of his authority with that of General 
William H. Winder ^ which followed is a chapter in military 
history hitherto unwritten. 

When the British fleet sailed into the Chesapeake in August, 
bringing the army that later fought at. North Point, Samuel Smith 
was the most conspicuous and one of the most distinguished resi- 
dents of Baltimore. A major general in command of the 3rd 
Division of Maryland Militia with headquarters in that City, he 
was a veteran of the Continental Army who could proudly exhibit 
a sword voted him by the Continental Congress in recognition of 
his services. General Smith's interests, however, were not wholly 
centered on military affairs. Now sixty-two years of age, he 
represented Maryland in the United States Senate and, although 
a Jeffersonian Republican, was not accounted as a die-hard sup- 

* In the United States pronounced as if spelled Wine-der. In England the 
pronunciation is Win-der. 

The Winder MSS to which references are made are owned by The Johns Hopkins 
University which has courteously given the writer access to them. The &nith MSS 
referred to are the Samuel Smith papers in the Library of Congress. 

177 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



porter of the Madison administration. Moreover, as the head of 
the firm of Smith & Buchanan he had been for a number of years 
extensively and profitably engaged in the shipping business — now, 
however, seriously interfered with by the War. 

General Winder had been an officer in the army of the United 
States since April, 1812, when at the age of thirty-seven, he was 
commissioned a lieutenant colonel. Prior to that time his mili- 
tary experience had been limited to service in Baltimore as a cap- 
tain of a company of militia. Born in Somerset County of a 
family that had its roots deep in the soil of that locality, he had 
obtained there both professional and political recognition when he 
decided in 1807 to move to Baltimore. Here his professional 
advancement had been such that when he entered the Army he 
was one of the leaders of the Baltimore bar and in the reception 
of an income that amounted to several times the pay of a lieu- 
tenant colonel of the army. In politics Winder was a Federalist, 
wearing the badge of the party opposed to the administration at 
Washington. His decision to enter the army must, therefore, be 
attributed solely to his desire to serve his country in a war which 
he believed to be inescapable and shortly to be declared. 

Raised to the rank of colonel following the declaration of war 
by Congress in June, Winder had been ordered to the Niagara 
frontier in command of a force of less than 500 men recruited by 
hitai in Maryland.^ 

For conspicuous service there he was raised to the rank of 
brigadier general in the spring of 1813, but had the misfortune 
to be captured by the British in the Battle of Stoney Creek fought 
in June following and he remained a prisoner until June, 1814, 
when he was exchanged. 

While a prisoner Winder instituted and brought to conclusion 
an exchange of prisoners which put an end to the degrading and 
inconvenient series of reprisals inaugurated by the administration 
when 23 American prisoners captured at the Battle of Queenston 
were threatened with death by the British government.^ 

This brought him in touch with the Madison administration 
and with Monroe in particular with whom an intimacy developed 
that remained unbroken urftil Winder's death. 

* winder to General John Dearborn. Winder MSS. 

' The service performed by Winder in this connection is the subject of an article 
by the writer appearing in the October, 19^3, issue of' the Amertfan Historical 
Review. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 179 



When events in June, 1814, disclosed the probability of an 
attack by the British to be delivered in the area of the Chesapeake, 
the administration made preparations to meet it. For the pur- 
poses of military administration the United States had been 
divided intA 9 districts, each in command of an officer selected by 
the War Department. It was now decided to create a new dis- 
trict to be known as the 10th in which Maryland, the District of 
Columbia and that part of Virginia which lies between the 
Rappahannock and Potomac River would be included.* 

For the command of the new district in which lay Washington, 
Baltimore and Annapolis, and for the defense of which measures 
must now be taken, General Winder, just returned to military 
duty through exchange, was selected. Thus it came about that the 
American forces on the 24th of August, 1814, defeated at Bladens- 
burg, were commanded by him. 

Following that disaster, Winder established headquarters at 
Montgomery Court House and here assembled the remnants of 
the troops that remained in the vicinity.^ These he organized 
and prepared to move to Baltimore which he anticipated would 
next be attacked by the British and to which he sent couriers with 
orders to provide food and munitions. On the morning of August 
26th he set his force in motion and when he reached Snells Bridge 
on the Patuxent decided to leave it in command of General Tobias 
Stansbury and hurry on to Baltimore to bend the whole force of 
his power as commander of the 10th Military District to bring 
into activity all the resources of the place.* 

Before reaching the city Winder was astonished to receive a 
letter by express from Major General Samuel Smith informing 
him that he had been called into service and had assumed com- 
mand according to his rank.'' This meant that from now on 
Winder would take orders from Smith, and if so, his position as 
commander of the 10th Military District in which Baltimore was 
included would be jeopardized and beset with all manner of 
confusion. 

'The order creating the nine military districts was issued March 19, 1813. The 
new 10th District was created by order issued in July, 1814, and was carved out of 
the existing 5th District, which was made up of Maryland and Virginia. Niles' 
Weekly Register, IV, 65; VI, 319. 

° Winder's statement to Congressional Committee investigating the capture of 
Washington. American State Papers: Military Affairs, I, 556. 

• Winder to General John Strieker, August 25, Winder MSS. 

' Smith to Winder, August 26. 



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MARYLAND HISTC«.ICAL MAGAZINE 



In assembling the troops for the defense of Washington prior 
to Bladensburg, "Winder had had a number of contacts with Smith 
and had found occasion to express appreciation of his coopera- 
tive efforts." This cordial intercourse in the past served only to 
increase "Winder's surprise and perplexity at the information 
imparted by his letter. 

Smith had already given consideration to a possible conflict in 
authority behveen himself and "Winder. Upon learning of the 
arrival of the British fleet in the Bay, he wrote to the Governor of 
Maryland, requesting to be informed what his rank relative to 
"Winder's would be should he be required to call out the militia 
under the provisions of the State law. " The importance, and in 
my belief, absolute necessity of understanding the nature of our 
respective duties at this period," he wrote, " will plead my apology 
for asking of your Excellency instructions for my government." " 
In reply the Governor tactfully wrote: 

The Secretary of War, I understand is of the opinion that no officer of 
the United States, be his grade ever so inferior, is to be commanded by a 
militia officer of any grade, unless he (the latter) is in the service of the 
United States, according to which opinion, you, while commanding a 
Division under authority of the State, would be subject to the autliority of 
an officer of the United States if you were circumstanced so as to be 
compelled to act together.^" 

"While the Governor asserted he was not in accord with this 
view, he did not, he said at present wish to give a stock opinion 
and would write Smith further. Smith's inquiries he said " led 
to a subject in which he had long foreseen difficulties would some 
day arise probably of serious inconvenience to the public service." 
And here the matter rested for the time being. 

Whatever information General Winder may have had as to 
this correspondence, immediately upon his reaching Baltimore on 
the evening of the 26th of August, he wrote the Governor asking 
for a confirmation of Smith's claim. 

Now the Governor of Maryland was Levin Winder, the Gen- 
eral's uncle whose affection for and interest in his nephew is dis- 
played in the letters that passed between them. In reply to the 
General's inquiry the Governor wrote: 

' Winder to Smith, July 21. Smith MSS. 

• Smith to Governor Levin Winder, August 18. Smith MSS. 

" Governor Winder to Smith, Au^st 18. Smith MSS. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 181 



Yesterday, I received a letter from Mr. Johnson [Mayor of Baltimore} 
as Chairman of a Committee, stating that they desired General Smith to 
take command at Baltimore and that I would invest General Smith with 
further powers. I returned for answer, it was proper for General Smith to 
take command of the militia and make every arrangement for the defense 
of the place, but that I could not invest him with any powers which he 
did not already possess except to inform him that according to the requisi- 
tion of the Government of the United States for a Major General, he had 
been selected for that purpose, but certainly this information was not 
contemplated to give General Smith command nor neither could it take 
effect in any respect until confirmation was given to it by the General 
Govemment.^^ 

Before disclosing the next move made by General "Winder it is 
necessary to review the incidents preceding the letter sent to the 
Governor by the Mayor of Baltimore to which the Governor 
makes reference. 

On the day preceding the Battle of Bladensburg there had beeA 
formed in Baltimore a general Committee of Vigilance and Safety 
made up of representatives from the wards and the areas known as 
" The Eastern Precincts " and " The Western Precincts." At a 
meeting of this Committee, held on the day following Bladens- 
burg, a sub-committee of which Col. John Eager Howard, the hero 
of Cowpens (whose son had served as aide to General Winder 
at Bladensburg) was chairman, was appointed to wait on Gen- 
eral Smith and to request that he would at this important crisis 
take upon himself the command of the forces that might be 
called in defence of the City. The sub-committee acted pursuant 
to a communication received by the Committee of Vigilance and 
Safety from Brigadier General John Strieker, Commodore Oliver 
Hazard Perry, Major George Armistead of the regular U. S. 
Army serving at Fort McHenry and Master-Commandant Robert 
T. Spence of the U. S. Navy, attached to the command olf Com- 
modore John Rodgers, in which they expressed the wish that 
Major General Smith be requested to take command at Balti- 
more.^^ 

Governor Winder to General Winder, August 27. Winder MSS. 
" See text of original minutes in this issue, p. 199 S. Perry was in Baltimore in 
connection with the building and equipment of a vessel intended for his command. 
That Armistead should have been one of the signers of the letter to the Committee 
of Vigilance was a breach of military etiquette, to say the least. Armistead, serving 
at Fort McHenry, was under Winder's command. 



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The sub-committee headed by Colonel Howard, after waiting 
on General Smith, reported that he would take command, but 
that he wished to be sanctioned in so doing by the Governor and 
that " his powers might be extended." It was pursuant to this 
request that the Mayor of Baltimore wrote the Governor. 

What the Governor wrote Smith did not contain the limitations 
as to Smith's command expressed in his letter to his nephew 
General Winder. It was as follows: 

By request of the President of the United States of the tenth of July 
last, one Major General is requested of this State. In compliance to which 
you have been selected.^* 

" The request of the President " refers to an order issued by 
the War Department on the preceding fourth of July establishing 
the militia quotas which the several states were requested to raise 
for possible service in the war, that for Maryland being 6,000 
men, one major general, three brigadier generals and staff officers 
in addition.^* 

Such militia as were under arms in Maryland had been called 
into the service of the United States by an order issued by General 
Winder prior to Bladensburg and the capture of Washington, but 
it did not include Major-General Smith or any officer higher in 
rank than brigadier general. 

Governor Winder's letter to Smith, above quoted, was suffi- 
ciently cryptic to serve Smith's purposes and those of the com- 
mittee. They construed it to mean that he too had now been called 
into the service of the United States in the rank of major general, 
by the Governor by virtue of an authority conferred under the 
order of July 4th. 

Being a man of action and a senator of the United States, Smith 
did not refer any doubts as to his status to the Secretary of War. 
Instead he took the bull by the horns and boldly wrote him that he 
had been appointed by Governor Winder to the command of the 
quota of Maryland under the General Order of July 4th and had 
assumed the command conformable with his rank. " General 
Winder is in the City," he added, '" I have not yet seen him. . . . 
My force may be called 4000 effectives. I am throwing up field 
work." " 

" Winder to Smith, August 26. SmiA MSS. 

** American State Papers: Military Affairs, I, 550. 

" Smith to Armstrong, Secretary of W«r, August 27. Smith MSS. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 183 



In this fashion technicalities were brushed aside and Smith 
became de facto commander in chief at Baltimore. 

He was, we are told, " soon ... on horseback, traversing the 
City and animating his fellow citizens to buckle on their arms and 
to prepare to defend their homes and all that was dear to free 
men." " 

Stiflfening the resolution of his fellow citizens was a need of 
the hour, for there was a feeling abroad that the wisest plan was 
to buy off immunity from attack, as Alexandria had done when 
Captain James Gordon's squadron dropped anchor before that 
city. Opposed to this craven counsel resolutely stood such men 
as Colonel John Eager Howard, who is reported to have declared 
that he had four sons in the field and as much property at stake 
as most persons, but would see his sons slain and his property 
reduced to ashes than so far disgrace his country.^' Happily the 
decision was to resist and happily too the names of the appeasers 
are wrapped in a merciful oblivion. 

To Winder there appeared to be a way out of the difficulty 
created by Smith's assumption of command and this he now 
decided to pursue. He wrote to John Armstrong, the Secretary 
of War, and suggested that he be raised to rank of major general 
in which as an officer of the regular army he would " out-top " 
Smith. 

Stating that he had sent to Smith a copy of Governor Winder's 
letter to him, 

he, to my astonishment, [wrote General Winder], still conceives himself 
in command and persists to exercise it. The manner, [he continued], in 
which General Smith has placed himself in command in my absence is at 
least very singular. The immediate and peremptory decision of the Gov- 
ernment which can only give me necessary support to enable me to act 
with effect, is absolutely necessary and although I have never pretended to 
urge pretensions to increase in rank, yet I submit it now; for the readiest 
mode of avoiding all difficulty will be giving me a rank to overreach 

From a prepared statement in the Smith MSS. It cannot be overlooked that 
there was a soh'd basis for having Smith take over the defense of Baltimore, quite 
aside from his competency to command. Ever since April of the preceding year 
where construction of the different works for the City's security was begun, they 
had been under the supervision of Smith acting as major general of the 3rd Division 
of Maryland Militia and credit for their progress and effectiveness on September 
12th cannot be denied him. See Scharf s Chronicles of Baltimore (Baltimore, 
1874), p. 341 et seq. 

" Daniel C. Oilman, " Colonel John Eaget Howard," in Launching of a Uni- 
versity (New York, 1906), p. 383. 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



the possible danger of conflict with any militia officer — as will also to give 
me the most decisive evidence of the countenance of the Government at 
this perilous and difficult moment.^^ 

If precedent could be relied on, Winder had reason to believe 
that this proposal would be hospitably received by the Secretary. 
On an earlier occasion he had decided a priority in rank in 
Winder's favor when the question was raised by the pretensions 
of Major General Van Ness of the District of Columbia militia. 
He then held that when those troops were called into the service 
of the United States their division commander was not included 
unless it was specifically so stated.^® 

But that was before Bladensburg. 

Armstrong now had troubles of his own which no doubt 
absorbed his full attention. The responsibility for the defeat of 
the American forces in that engagement was chiefly saddled on 
the Secretary, although Winder was included in the censure. 

The former was charged with indifference to any disaster that 
might befall Washington, the choice of which for the national 
capitol, it was claimed, he had always opposed, and Winder 
whose appointment as commander of the 10th Military District 
Armstrong had opposed " was reprobated as a Federalist and a 
fool." Thus were assailed in these few words both his fealty to 
the Administration and his military capacity.^* 

Armstrong's response to Winder's request to be raised to the 
rank of major general was evasive. His letter, he said, had been 
submitted to the President and " the course which under pressure 
here is thought advisable, is that you return to this place with the 
regular infantry as soon as possible and that you turn off General 
Douglas and his Brigade from the route to Washington." 

Pursuant to this order, dated August 29th, Winder proceeded 
to Washington. However, in the brief interval between the 29th 
and the 31st of August incidents of momentous importance to the 
Secretary of War had transpired in Washington. "These will now 
be reviewed. 

" Winder to Armstrong, August 28. Winder MSS. 

*° For an interesting account of this controversy see American State Papers: 
Military Affairs, I, 581-2. 

Charles J. IngersoU, Historical Sketch of the Second War (Phila., 1845), II, 
p. 170. 

" Armstrong to Winder, August 29. Winder MSS. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 185 



Following the withdrawal of the British from Washington the 
President and Monroe had returned on August 26th to find the 
City and Georgetown in a state of great confusion and alarm. 
Captain James Gordon with his squadron of the British fleet that 
had been sent up the Potomac when Admiral Cochrane left the 
mouth of that river for the Patuxent, was at Alexandria of which 
he had taken possession, and the seizure of Washington and 
Georgetown was momentarily expected. 

Armstrong, Secretary of War, was still in Frederick, Maryland, 
to which he had fled when Washington fell to the British and 
Winder was in Baltimore. Prompt measures were indispensable. 
In the circumstances the President requested Monroe to take over 
Armstrong's portfolio and also military command of the District 
of Columbia. Complying with the request, Monroe found him- 
self Secretary of State, Secretary of War and in active militaiy ser- 
vice with a combination of duties and responsibilities never before 
and never since in the history of this country assumed by a 
member of the cabinet. 

On the morning following the assumption of his command, 
Monroe in company with the President and Mr. Rush, the 
Attorney General, had visited the Navy Yard, and the arsenal at 
Greenleaf Point and had adopted measures under sanction of the 
President for the defense of the city and Georgetown.'''' 

The assumption of a command in the army was the realization 
of an ambition cherished by Monroe from the outbreak of the 
war. After the defeat of Hull, Madison had offered him the com- 
mand in the northwest, but Armstrong had, unknown to the Presi- 
dent, slipped in the appointment of Harrison. At the close of the 
campaign in the fall of 1813 it was again suggested that he take 
the field but finding that it meant service under Major General 
John Dearborn he expressed preference for his cabinet berth.^'* 

S. M. Hamilton, ed., Writings of James Monroe, V, Appendix, p. 374. It was 
while exercisihg this command that an oiScer was ordered from the field by 
Monroe for insubordination. This officer has mistakenly been identified in D. C. 
Oilman, James Monroe (American Statesmen Series), as General Winder. See 
index sub-nom Winder. At the time the incident occurred Winder was in 
Baltimore. 

Hamilton, op. cit., V, Appendix, p. 374. The story of Monroe's military ambi- 
tion is told in a letter to Thomas Jefferson. Ibid. What capacity Monroe would 
have displayed as a general officer is pure conjecture. His military command in the 
District of Columbia was too limited and too brief to furnish any information, but 
his service in the Continental Army found a severe critic in Aaron Burr. He 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Thus when John Armstrong returned to Washington from 
Frederick on August 29th he found his post of Secretary of War 
occupied by Monroe and military command of the District like- 
wise committed to him. Whatever misgivings this situation may 
have created for Armstrong they were soon resolved. 

On the afternoon of the very day of his arrival he was visited 
by the President who, after reviewing the situation, including the 
responsibility for the defeat at Bladensburg, succeeded in making 
it very clear to his Secretary of War that his usefulness in the 
cabinet was at an end. Armstrong left Washington at once for 
Baltimore where the next day he wrote out his resignation and 
forwarded it to the President.^* 

Thus it happened that when General Winder, pursuant to the 
order of Armstrong above mentioned, arrived in Washington on 
August 31st, he found his friend Monroe not only Secretary of 
War, but exercising command in an area included in his own. 
Nevertheless, he issued a general order stating that headquarters 
of Military District No. 10 were now established in Washington 
to which returns and communications should be directed unless 
his movements otherwise required.** 

Reviewing this change in the situation. Winder now decided 
that he would submit to Monroe the confusion attending the 
assumption of command by Smith and ask the relief that he had 
not succeeded in getting from Armstrong. 

He accordingly drew up a summary of his activities covering 
the period of his services in tfie 10th Military District and on 
September 1st submitted it to Monroe together with a letter in 
which he said: 

I beg leave simply to say that it is due me in justice and it is due the 
Government that they should give me the most emphatic support. If they 
omit to take that step now at every subsequent misfortune, however 
inevitable, they will be obliged to change their commanding officer and 
thereby deny themselves the possibility of executing any subsequent plan 
for defense of the Country at this perilous moment.^* 

pretends as I am told," he wrote, "' to some knowledge of military matters but he 
never commanded a platoon nor was ever fit to command one." Burr to Governor 
Alston. Parton's Life of Andrew Jackson, II, p. 351-2. Burr's opinion of Monroe's 
legal ability was no higher: " As a lawyer Monroe was far below mediocrity. He 
never rose to the honor of trying a case of the value of a hundred pounds." Ibid. 
^' GaiUard Hunt, ed., Writings of James Madison, VIII, 300-304. 
Winder MSS. Winder to Monroe, Winder MSS. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 187 



But Monroe was not sufficiently moved by this appeal to gratify 
his friends's wishes. Baltimore had selected the man it wanted 
to assume the defense of the city. The enemy was on its way to 
attack it. This was no time to encourage disunity. 

On the day following receipt of Winder's letter, Monroe wrote 
Smith giving him recognition as commanding officer in the Bal- 
timore area and informing him, " that General Winder will unite 
with your forces such of those under his command as may afford 
the most efficient aid to the protection of Baltimore." " 

This settled the question as to who was to command at Balti- 
more and Winder returned to that city on September 4th, but his 
letters clearly disclose his perplexity as to the part he was to have 
in the plans for its defense. 

In the afternoon of that day he wrote Monroe that Smith had 
intimated the idea of giving him a brigade " patched up from 
other Brigadiers who may go away "; but as yet had issued no 
order and may possibly out of 12,000 or 14,000 men, give him 
such command as he would be entitled to as senior officer except 
himself, but as to his views and intentions he was wholly 
uninformed. 

I deem it, [he continued}, my duty to give immediate regular notice of 
my situation to the Government. It is obvious that the idea of my being 
still commander of the 10th District after your' order of the 2nd must be 
perfectly nominal not only here but every where else and that I may not 
and cannot be responsible for anything that may occur in any part of it. 
I again beg leave most respectfully to suggest that these are perilous, 
alarming and highly critical times even to the very existence of the Gov- 
ernment and that the administration must afct with the utmost vigor with- 
our resort to expediency or compromise, most especially in its military 
functions. These suggestions spring from the sincerest interest for the 
welfare of the Country and the most respectful feeling for the Administra- 
tion and the impression it seems to be gaining some strength upon those 
points are my apologies for the liberty I have taken.^* 

No reply by Monroe to this letter has been found but Winder's 
doubts as to the troops to be assigned him were dispelled when 
on the following day, the brigades of General Douglas and Gen- 
eral Singleton, comprising militia from Virginia, were put under 
his command, together with the 36th and 38th regiments of regu- 

" Monroe to Smith, September 2. Smith MSS. 
Winder MSS. 

I 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



lars and Laval's cavalry which had been in the engagement at 
Bladensburg. " General Winder," the order continued, " is 
charged with the defense on the Ferry Branch. He will on ap- 
plication to the commanding officer of the Navy, be supplied 
with cannon and ammiiniticai for the redoubts and officers and 
men to man it.^' 

On the face of it this was an important command, including 
in its area Forts McHenry, Babcock (also known as the Six 
Gun Battery) and Covington, occasionally mentioned as Fort 
Wadsworth — the main defense against an attack on the city from 
the upper reaches of the Patapsco River — ^but it oflFered no prospect 
of infantry operations and Winder appears to have sensed an 
intention to remove him to the rear. 

An overland attack by the enemy from Washington by way of 
Ferry Bar was no longer apprehended. He had retired to his 
shipping in the lower Patuxent and if the city were attacked every 
prospect favored a joint military and naval operation. 

The city's location on the north bank of the Patapsco 12 miles 
from its mouth, rendered it reasonably certain because of the 
River's narrow and comparatively shallow channel, that an attack 
would be directed along the peninsula which extends eastwardly 
from the city's limits to the Qbesapeake Bay, bounded on the 
north by a body of water known as Back River as it is on the 
south by the Patapsco. 

To meet this threat advantage was taken of a range of hills 
arising from the north shore of the inner harbor about in line 
with Fort McHenry extending northerly and approximately par- 
allel with the city's eastern limits. 

On these elevations, grouped under the name of Hampstead 
Hill, was constructed a series of earth works, circumvallations and 
bastions.'" As it was in this area that an attack by the British 

" Winder MSS. The conunandinf ofEcer of the Navy at Baltimore was Com- 
mander John Rodgers. 

" The location of the works prepared for the defense of Baltimore by its citizens 
are shown in the so-called " Winder's Map," a handsome copy of which is in the 
Maryland Historical Society. Those on the eastern limits of the city began at 
the Sugar House on the Harbor and extended to a location now marked by the 
intersection of Baltimore Street and Broadway; but Frederick M. Colston says: 
'" There was a detached work west of Broadway and another one on McKim's Hill 
on the east side of the York Road (now Greenmount Avenue) and just south of 
the present [Greenmount] Cemetery ; and a further one about where Broadway now 
crosses Gay Street. " Battle of North Point," Maryland Historical Magazine II 
(1907), 113. ' 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 189 



was expected, it was where Winder preferred to be and he 
promptly made known to General &nith his dissatisfaction with 

his assignment. 

After the candor which I have evinced toward you, [he wrote], I can- 
not for a moment suppose that in the assignment of my command and 
station, any other motive than a just regard for my rank and other circum- 
stances influenced you — and yet I cannot but believe that in a review of 
the arrangements you have made, you will be satisfied that it is unjust as 
relates to my rank and situation- and in derogation from the ordinary 
principles of military service.^^ 

With a full sense of military obligation to a superior officer, 
Winder nevertheless evinced a resolution to comply with Smith's 
order by taking prompt steps to inform himself of the state and 
position of his command and to examine the force and positions 
that required artillery and to give information as to what forces 
of that arm would be needed. 

He established headquarters on High Street, in that part of 
the city known as Old Town, and in the order announcing it, 
took occasion to say: 

While the most unremitting attention will be paid to the drill, dis- 
cipline and police of the respective corps comprising the command, the 
commanding officers will particularly attend to holding the respective 
commands in a state of readiness for marching at a moments warning and 

in a most effective state for service.^- 

But Winder immediately ran into a practical difficulty. 

Although Forts McHenry, Babcock and Covington were within 
the limits of his command, the garrisons in them were not enumer- 
ated among the troops placed under him. He again wrote Smith, 
saying "I presume it is. necessary only to suggest this circum- 
stance to have it rectified." " 

He also took occasion to inquire whether any works were 
ordered or being carried on within the line of defenses under his 
command and whether any laboring force had been appropriated 
for such purpose. " If not," he wrote, ^" I must beg that engi- 
neers may be directed to report to me for the purpose of 
strengthening the defenses as far as practical within the lines 
committed to me." 

" Winder to Smith, September 5. Winder MSS. 
" Winder MSS. 

»* Winder to Smith, Septen*er 7. Winder MSS. 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Receiving no reply to this communication, three days later he 
wrote Smith again, saying he had in the meantime visited the 
forts and out of ninety-three men at Covington, one-half were 
unfit for duty " from the unhealthiness of the situation "; that the 
command to which he had been assigned was one of considerable 
responsibility but destitute of the essential means of enabling him 
to respond to it.^* 

This letter followed by a visit to Smith's headquarters resulted 
in an order from the latter dated September 10th that all regu- 
lars of every description in Baltimore be placed under Winder's 
command.*" 

Now Forts Babcock and Covington were garrisoned by men 
in the naval service under the command of Commodore John 
Rodgers, a command which was separate from that of General 
Smith and not subject to his orders."" As a result the only garrison 
affected by the order placing all regulars under Winder was that 
in Fort McHenry, and Major George Armistead, who there com- 
manded, now found Winder and not Smitli his commanding 
officer. 

While Winder's assignment under Smith was thus being 
worked into a definite pattern he found his administrative duties 
as commander of the 10th Military District confused and the 
territorial limits of his authority undefined. 

Smith commanded in Baltimore, Monroe commanded in the 
District of Columbia and on the banks of the Potomac below that 
city. Winder therefore, felt it imperative to have his responsi- 
bility and authority clarified and with this in view he wrote 
Monroe as follows: 

Every moment evinces more and more the impracticability of the present 
arrangement of the command of the 10th Military District. Subject as I 
am to the command of General Smith here, all the force with me is sub- 
ject to the same command while all the forces in or near the Potomac are 
subject to your command. This precludes the possibility of my disposing 
of a man. The little force at Annapolis is all which is not actually 
included within your command or that of General Smith's. The whole 
staff of the District is either here or is with you. The quartermaster's 

" Winder MSS. " Winder MSS. 

Rodgers had been ordered to proceed to Washington from New York with 
a detachment of officers and men to help in its defense, but when he reached Balti- 
more Washington had been captured. He remained there and was given an im- 
portant assigimient in its defense. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 191 



department especially must be absolutely at the disposal of the command- 
ing general, and since it is impossible that this department can act at the 
same time under District and independent orders, it follows that I cannot 
call on it for anything. The commissary of purchase and his deputies are 
in the same situation as relates to the requisition for supplies but besides 
this difficulty as relates to these officers, [he continues} it is impossible to 
conceive that an officer under the command of another, as I am under 
General Smith, can have the power to issue orders inconsistent with his, 
or which are not his orders ; and yet as commander of the District, accord- 
ing to the idea of the President and yourself, it is supposed I may do so. 
Besides, General Smith's power, according to the Constitution, is limited 
to his division and the troops united with them and has no local extent 
beyond." 

He then asks how the expired enlistments are to be dealt with. 
" Not by Smith," he submits, " since his powers are limited to his 
Division." Not by himself since his officers to whom orders 
would be issued, are either under Monroe's command or that of 
Smith. Men are ready, he points out, to come in from Pennsyl- 
vania and although contrary to military order and subordination, 

I shall direct them under the present state of affairs, to come to this City. 
When they arrive they fall under the command of General Smith, or not, 
as he may deem it proper to order payment of expenses incurred in the 
march of detachment here. In truth Sir, it is unnecessary to multiply 
instances since it is impossible to move a step without violating all mili- 
tary rule and practice or making an impossible impasse. The present 
state of the Country requires that the command should be arranged with- 
out delay. No commanding officer can, in the present state of things, be 
responsible for any result which may happen." 

This letter, marked private, brought a frank and conciliatory 
reply from Monroe in which he explained the difficulties pre- 
sented in the conflict in the command at Baltimore and the rea- 
sons for committing the command to Smith. It is a sort of letter 
that one friend might expect to receive from another. 

" Your letter of yesterday," wrote Monroe, " states the existing 
derangements in the military command of this District and its 
injurious tendency and the sentiments you express on the whole 
subject are just and honorable to you." Reviewing the circum- 
stances under which he became Secretary of War and took over 
military command of the District of Gjlumbia, of which the 
reader has been informed, he continues: 

" Winder to Monroe, September 7. Winder MSS. 
% 



192 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



On your return I offered to give up the military command in your favor, 
as I had done before your arrival to the President. He thought, and you 
concurred with him, that I had better continue to exercise the command 
for a while, having in your absence adopted certain measures which were 
in a train of execution. General Smith having been called into service by 
the Governor of Maryland with the rank of Major General, would not 
yield to that whicli had been conferred on you by the President as com- 
mander of the District. The question had been submitted by you to the 
Government and was not decided by General Armstrong; in the mean- 
time General Smith retained the command at Baltimore, against which it 
was still apprehended that the enemy would move with their whole force 
by water up the bay. In this state of things, it was thought improper to 
make any change in the command at Baltimore, lest it might cause some 
derangement there injurious to the public interest. The command at the 
White house where Porter was appointed to erect and command a battery, 
and in support of which two brigades of militia were ordered was offered 
to you. You preferred returning to Baltimore, in the expectation that it 
would be attacked, and in the belief that you might render more important 
services there. 

Possessing fully the confidence of the Government, it was wished to 
place you where you niighL render most service. 

Whether it is proper to maintain the principle, that a Brigadier Gen- \ 
eral, appointed to command a military district, shall take rank of all 
others in that district, though of a superior rank in the line, of the regular 
army or militia, is doubtful. — You will admit that there was an evident 
difficulty, and that some injury might have resulted from it, in the present 
call, under all the circumstances attending it. 

The evils however resulting from the displacement of the commander of 
a district, who ought to be of the regular army, by the call of a large body 
of militia into the field, on a sudden emergency, and of a militia General 
to command them of higher grade than that of the commander of the 
district are obvious. — The command ought to be committed to a General 
of the regular army, that he may remain constantly in the discharge of its 
duties, which will exist while the war lasts. — The duties of the military 
commander of a District are extensive and various. The selection of 
proper points for defense, and the erection of works on them, the call 
for supplies of every kind, the call on the States for militia and the dis- 
tribution of the force generally, are duties which require the direction and 
control of a person who may be long in office, and be thereby enabled to 
reduce the whole into a system. The sudden displacement of such a 
commander by a General of the Militia, utterly unacquainted with the 
whole business, equally in the outline and detail, cannot fail to cause 
derangement and serious injury. The difficulty in the present case is, to 
make any change at this time especially at Baltimore. 

To your resuming the command here and in every other part of the 
district, there is now no obstacle. My command was intended to be tem- 
porary and has ceased; you know from the part which I acted before. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 193 



under you, that I could have had but one motive in undertaking it. Should 
the enemy cease to menace Baltimore, the difficulty to the resumption of 
your command there, may soon be removed. Such a state of things might 
replace you, while it lasted in the command of the whole district, but a 
new incursion of the enemy in force, might and probably would produce 
the same difficulty. 

There appears to be no effectual remedy to this evil, free from objec- 
tion, but that of placing in the command of the Districts, officers who 
would take rank of Major Generals of the militia; the evil being ap- 
plicable to all the districts, the remedy should be co-extensive over them. 
At this time it cannot be taken up on that scale, if indeed the intervention 
of Congress will not be necessary for that purpose. 

Should the enemy descend the bay, and relieve this quarter from 
apprehension, the command may undergo some change. Should you be 
willing to resume the command here and elsewhere with the exception 
of Baltimore, it is desirable that you repair hete, unless you shoula find 
some serious objection to it. 

I repeat that the President entertains a high respect for your talents and 
merit, and that he is disposed to evince it, on every suitable occasion.^' 

However gratified General Winder may have been at the tenor 
of this letter, he felt that Monroe had not considered and 
answered the main point of his contention. In a rejoinder written 
on September 9th, also marked " private," he fears he did not 
state it " with requisite precision." 

My object, he wrote, was purely to state the real and possibly fatal 
embarrassments to which the Service might be reduced from the unde- 
fined nature and limits of Command existing in the District and from a 
belief that some order from the War Department might fix with more 
precision the 'Command respectively to be performed by the Major General 
of Militia and my duties as Commander of the District.*^ 

He concluded this letter by directing attention to Annapolis 
which he still considers within the limits of his command and to 
the necessity of doing something for its defense. 

On the day before North Point was fought Monroe answered 
this letter, and made it clear that Winder need give himself no 
concern about Annapolis. 

There can be but one Commander, [he wrote], in every quarter for 
which any particular force is intended. The force at Baltimore being 
relied on for the protecticm of that place, Annapolis and all other places 
in this District on the Bay, being under General Smith, the movement 

" Monroe to Winder, September 8. Winder MSS. 
" Winder MSS. 



194 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

of troops must be under his control. I thought this idea was conveyed 
in my last. Finding that you do not so understand it, I hasten to correct 
the mistake and to express my full confidence that you will do everjrthing 
in your power to promote the success trf our arms in defense of our 

Country.^^ 

Enclosed in this letter was a copy of one to General Smith dated 
September 10th requesting him to look to and provide defense 
for both Baltimore and Annapolis and any other places in that 
quarter which may be in danger. General Winder," he wrote, 
who as Commander of the District has made calls for the militia 
from dilferent quarters, is instructed to cooperate and give you all 
the aid in his power." 

This letter and that to Smith left Winder in no doubt that his 
command of the 10th District was now titular only. However, 
any resentment he may have felt appears to have been completely 
neutralized by his zeal for action in the attack on Baltimore which 
the British were preparing to deliver. This ambition he had 
confided to Monroe in the following words: " I am anxious only 
to acquit myself to the utmost in the present occasion in whatever 
situation I can, without recognizing the justice of the hasty preju- 
diced judgments, which may have formed of the late events." *" 

" The late events," of course, mean Bladensburg. He hoped for 
an opportunity to confuse those who had questioned his military 
competency by a display of the qualities that had won him 
recognition on the Niagara frontier. 

But he was to be disappointed. In the afternoon of September 
11th when the American forces marched from Baltimore to oppose 
the British in any advance upon the city from the east, they were 
not under the command of General Winder who, as second in 
rank to General Smith, was by the rules of seniority clearly entitled 
to this honor. Smith had given the command to his old com- 
panion in arms, John Strieker, an officer with the militia rank of 
brigadier general, and who, as we have seen, headed the com- 
mittee that waited on Smith requesting him to take command at 
Baltimore. Strieker, now in his fifty-sixth year, had a creditable 
record of service in the G>ntinental Army out of whidi he came 
in the grade of captain. 

Monroe to Winder, September 11. Winder MSS. 
*" Winder to Monroe, September 9. Winder MSS. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 195 

Notwithstanding the defeat of his force by the British at 
North Point on September 12th, Strieker succeeded in withdraw- 
ing his troops without serious loss, and took a position at Worth- 
ington Mills beyond the northern limits of Baltimore and east 
of the Belair Road. Here General Winder with his troops was 
ordered to join him. "When the enemy began his withdrawal on 
the early morning of the 14th an attempt was made to harass him, 
but General Smith reported that " all the troops were so worn out 
with continuous attacking and with being under arms during 
three days and nights, exposed the greater part of the time to 
very inclement weather, that it was found impracticable to do 
anything more than pick up a few stragglers." 

Whatever disappointment Winder may have felt in being de- 
nied the command of the troops led by Strieker against the British 
must have been tempered by the results at North Point, where 
some of the militia proved no more steady than had those at 
Bladensburg, and by the fact that his services were especially 
commended by Smith in his General Orders.^- The abandonment 
of the attack upon Baltimore by the land and naval forces, care- 
fully planned by the British, brought relief from an anxiety so 
grave to those burdened with its defense, that no room was left 
in which jealousies and resentments could blossom. The city had 
been saved from seizure by the British and there was glory enough 
for all to have a share. 

In none of the reports made by the officers engaged in defend- 
ing the city is this better displayed than in a Division Order 
issued by General Winder from his headquarters on New Church 
Street and signed by Robert G. Hite, Assistant Adjutant General, 
a member of his staff, in which he praises Major Armistead and 
the officers and men in Fort McHenry as follows: 

The garrison of Fort McHenry, under the command of major Armistead, 
are entitled to, and receive the warmest acknowledgments and praise from 
the brigadier-general, for their steady, firm, and intrepid deportment dur- 
ing an almost incessant bombardment for twenty-four hours, during which 
time they were exposed to an incessant shower of shells. 

The militia artillery of the third brigade, under captains Nicholson and 
Berry, and lieutenant Pennington, vied with the regulars in a firmness and 

"T. H. Palmer, ed., Historical Register, IV, 189. 

*^ " To Brigadier-general Winder he [Smith] tenders his thaiJcs for his aid, 
co-operation and prompt pursuit of the enemy." Ibid., p. 204. 



.196 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



composure which would have honoured veterans, and prove that they 
were worthy to cooperate with the regular artillery, infantry, and sea- 
fencibles, in defense of that important post. Major Armistead receives 
also the warmest acknowledgments of the general commanding, for his 
able, vigilant, and exact arrangements before and during this period of 
arduous duty, as well as for the uniform zeal, vigour, and ability he has 
discovered in his preparations for the defense of the post immediately 
committed to his charge, as for the prompt and efficacious manner in 
which he has complied, under great and perplexing difficulties, with 
demands from all quarters for ammunition. 

Lieutenant-colonel Stewart and Major Lane> neither of whom were 
required to expose themselves in this dangerous post, will please accept 
the brigadier -general's warmest acknowledgements for the handsome and 
gallant manner in which they volunteered to take command of the regular 
infantry; who, with their officers and men, have evinced the most reso- 
lute and steady intrepidity in the midst of imminent and long-continued 
danger.^* 

The menace of renewed attack on Baltimore was relieved by 

the withdrawal of the British fleet and transports to the lower 
Chesapeake, whence they shortly passed out to sea, with the 
exception of a force too small to give concern. 

On September 21st Winder was ordered to Washington along 
with the U. S. troops under his command and the Virginia militia 
comprising General Douglas' brigade. This move was explained 
to him in a letter from Monroe written the same day and marked 
" private and confidential." In this letter Monroe said that an 
investigation of the events connected with the capture of Wash- 
ington would probably " be set on foot " and inasmuch as Winder 
was involved he thought it well for him to be in Washington 
where he could communicate with his friends and then again to 
take duty on the Niagara frontier. 

Moreover, he said, Major General Winfield Scott had been 
sent home from the Niagara frontier because of wounds which 

Ibid., pp. 201-2. That General Winder should have resorted to the expediency 
of this order indicates that his reluctance to subordinate his command to that of 
Smith had not been entirely overcome. An exact adherence to military precept 
would appear to have required a report to his superior officer such as Strieker made 
to Smith. It also may be noted that Armistead instead of making his report to 
Winder made one directly to Monroe, Secretary of War. It would be interesting 
to know if Armistead' s apparently unfriendly attitude toward Winder was respon- 
sible for what Major General James Wilkinson claimed to be the refusal of the 
Madison administration to give him the recognition that his services as commanding 
officer at Fort McHenry called for. It is a fact that he got nothing better than a 
lieutenant colonelcy by brevet in which rsak he died in 1818. See Wilkinson's 
Memoirs (1816), II, 795. 



CONTROVERSY OVER THE COMMAND AT BALTIMORE 197 



had rendered him incapable of service there, and that he would be 
ordered to take command of the 10th Military District and thereby 
relieve the situation created by the combined service of himself 
and General Smith.** 

To this Winder replied that in the circumstances he must avoid 
any appearance of running away and that a -command on the 
Niagara frontier must come to him not as an offer but as an order. 
On September 22nd the order was issued and upon its receipt 
Winder before leaving Washington once more wrote Monroe. 

I reply [he said}, with confidence that this sudden removal to so great 
a distance from the scene of my late command at a moment likely to 
produce an investigation into what has passed, will not be permitted to 
operate disadvantageously to me, and the more especially as it is more 
than probable the occasion for distinguishing myself where I am going, 
will be past before my arrival. 

In this manner were brought to a close the perplexities, annoy- 
ances and disappointments that beset Winder's command of the 
10th Military District. It also closed his conflict with General 
Smith and here we take leave of him. 

In so doing it may be said his surmise as to lack of opportunity 
for distinguishing himself proved to be sound. Shortly after his 
arrival on the frontier, the troops went into winter quarters and 
when spring opened, the Treaty of Ghent had been ratified and 
the War ended. 

The assumption of command in this area by Major General 
Scott likewise terminated that of General Smith, who nevertheless 
stoutly maintained to the last his conception of the rightful rank 
of an officer in the militia service vis-a-vis that of an officer of 
the regular army. In a letter to Governor Winder he said: 

General Scott being a Major General by Brevet only in the service of 
the United States, cannot under my impression of military etiquette, com- 
mand a commissioned Major General of Militia. This circumstance would 
at any other period have compelled me to insist on such a construction 
of the relation or rank of United States and Militia officers, but as the 
course of conduct might be the cause of great inconvenience and injury 
to the public good at the present moment, and [being] anxious of pre- 
venting such an unpleasant state of things, I have determined to retire 
from the Militia service.^s 

" Winder MSS. i 

" Winder to Monroe.^September 22. Winder MSS. 
Smith to Govetnor Winder, Oct. 18. Smith MSS. 



198 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



As we now take leave of General Smith, a word or two about 
him may be added. The City of Baltimore recognized the services 
of Commodore John Rodgers in its defense by presenting him 
with a handsome silver service and those rendered by Major Armi- 
stead by having his portrait painted by Rembrandt Peale and 
by presenting him with a massive silver punch bowl, a large tray, 
a ladle and twelve mugs. To Captain John A. Webster for his 
services two swords were presented, one by the City and one by 
the State. Apart from the City Council's order for a portrait of 
him, the services rendered by General Smith as Commander-in- 
Chief went unrecognized by the City, the State and the Federal 
Government.*^ 

Nor did he escape calumniating accusations. Not only was he 
criticized for not taking the offensive on Tuesday following the 
Battle of North Point and attacking Brooks' troops, but he was 
charged with having sent word to Armistead to surrender Fort 
McHenry and Cochrane.'** One hundred years elapsed before the 
citizens of Baltimore, under the leadership of a progressive mayor, 
erected his statue and carved on its pedestal the record of his 
services as Soldier, Statesman aiid Patriot.*' 



Part of the silver service presented to Rodgers may be seen at the Maryland 
Historical Society, to which it has been loaned by descendants. There also may be 
seen the swords presented to Webster. A cut of the pieces presented to Armistead 
is shown in Lossing's Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812 (New York, 1868), 
p. 960. They are now in the National Museum, Washington, to which they were 
presented in 1921 by Armistead's great-grandson, Alexander Gordon, Jr., Esq. The 
portrait by R. Peale hangs in the Baltimore Municipal Museum. 

*' In a letter to Samuel Smith, his father, Oct. 22, 1814, John Spear Smith states 
that Gen. Winfidd Scott is among those who think Gen. Smith exercised correct 
judgment in not taking the oflfaisive. As to the surrender of Fort McHenry, see a 
letter from Smith to Armistead, Nov. 6, 1815, and one from Armistead to Smith, 
Dec. 7, 1815. All these letters are in the Smith MSS. 

"This statue on the edgs of Wymau Park facuig Charles Street is unhapjHly 
dwarfed by the spacious settiiig. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE, 
1814-1815 

MINUTES OF THE COMMITTEE OF VIGILANCE AND SAFETY 
Edited by William D. Hoyt, Jr. 

Civilian defense is not a recent development in Baltimore. 
There was a G)mmittee of Safety in Revolutionary times, and 
the minutes of the Committee of Vigilance and Safety during the 
War of 1812 indicate a striking resemblance between the activities 
of that period and those of current date. There were no air-raid 
wardens, no blood donors, and no USO helpers, but other phases 
of the v/ork were carried on thoroughly and efficiently. 

The membership of the Committee, consisting of three repre- 
sentatives from each of the eight wards and from the adjoining 
Eastern and Western Precincts, remained at thirty. There was 
only one change in personnel, occasioned by Elias Ellicott's resig- 
nation because of his Quaker views on war and William Jessop's 
substitution in his place. Of the thirty-one names on the roll, 
at least sixteen v/ere merchants, and there was a judge, a cabinet- 
maker, a brickmaker, a butcher, a boatbuilder, and a sea captain. 
Probably the most distinguished member was Col. John Eager 
Howard, hero of the Revolution and a former Governor and 
former United States Senator. Close behind him was Theodorick 
Bland, soon to acquire the position of Chancellor. Cumberland 
Dugan, Solomon Etting, Samuel HoUingsworth, William Lor- 
man, William Patterson, and William Wilson — all merchants — 
were among the leading citizens of Baltimore business and social 
circles. It is interesting to note that, with a few exceptions, the 
work of the Committee was performed by the less prominent 
members. 

The Committee met daily for most of the period of its existence. 
Sometimes there were only routine matters to be considered and 



199 



200 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



the gatherings could not have lasted more than ten or fifteen min- 
utes. On other occasions, there was considerable business to be 
transacted, and the sessions were prolonged. When the British 
approached the City, the Committee met twice a day on September 
nth and 13th, 1814; and on September 12th and I4th the mem- 
bers assembled in morning, afternoon, and evening to discuss 
defense measures. 

The similarity between the activities of 1814-15 and those of 
1944 is emphasized by a review of the varied phases of the work 
performed by the Committee of Vigilance and Safety. One of 
the first steps — strictly in accord with the " vigilance " portion of 
the title — was the appointment of a subcommittee to investigate 
cases of persons who expressed sentiments inimical to the Ameri- 
can cause or to the defense of Baltimore. Several such persons 
were cited, arrested, examined, and either placed in confinement 
or removed from the City. At one point, the Committee issued 
a warning to citizens to watch their tongues, saying that idle talk 
and defeatist opinions might hinder the measures to be taken for 
the protection of the people. Deserters from the enemy were to 
be confined and examined by another subcommittee, then sent out 
of town. The watch on the streets was doubled, and, after Sep- 
tember 11th, soldiers were ordered to patrol at night. 

The biggest problem of defense was the erection of earthworks 
on the hills to the east and southeast of the City. For this pur- 
pose, the entire community was divided into four districts, each 
of which was to work on the fortifications at specified times in 
rotation. Superintendents, representing principally the construc- 
tion trades, were appointed to supervise the actual labor. Men 
exempt from military service and free people of color were in- 
cluded in the work parties, masters were expected to send their 
slaves, and other patriotic citizens and visitors from out of town 
were invited to take part. Tools — wheel barrows, pick axes, 
spades, an4 shovels — were ordered to central depositories, and 
lumber for braces and bomb-proof shelters were requisitioned. 
On September 5th, the work system was changed somewhat, with 
one superintendent for each, spot to be fortified. The only men 
who functioned as a unit in the construction of fortifications were 
thirty carpenters in the employ of Robert Gary Long. 

Weapons and provisions were important items on the agenda 
of the Committee. Guns were ordered to be repaired and fitted 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMCHIE 



201 



Up, and when there was a suggestion of removing some artillery 
pieces from the City, vigorous and successful protest was raised. 
A subcommittee was appointed to procure thirty or more scows 
to be sunk in the channel leading to the wharves, and, later, ves- 
sels loaded with light wood were prepared for use as fire ships. 
Tents and other articles of camp equipage were gathered together, 
arrangements were made with a baker to supply bread to the 
soldiers on duty, and, when the time of actual combat arrived, 
all the food for the fighters was prepared in town and carted out 
to the lines. The Committee also had in mind the morale of the 
troops and appropriated six hundred dollars to be spent on music 
for the regiments of General Strieker's brigade. 

Health and housing were two problems common to 1814 and 
1944. A subcommittee was directed to inquire into the possi- 
bilities for the care of the wounded; it was determined that the 
public hospital could accommodate 1000 men, and a staff of sur- 
geons under Dr. Colin McKenzie was appointed. The encamp- 
ments of the troops were watched and nuisances ordered to be 
removed. Housing for out-of-towners connected with the defense 
preparations was arranged, and citizens who were forced to re- 
move from the neighborhoods of the fortifications were located 
in other parts of the City. A Committee of Relief, composed of 
prominent members of the Society of Friends and representatives 
of various classes of people, was appointed to raise money and 
gather necessaries for the poor and the destitute. 

When the enemy actually appeared in sight, a sort of martial 
law was established. A curfew on the sale of spirituous liquors 
was set, and taverns other tlian tliose for travellers were ordered 
to close at nine o'clock. After the repulse of the British at North 
Point, carriages and hacks were impressed to bring the wounded 
from the field of battle, and members of the Conunittee attended 
to the decent and honorable burial of the " brave fellow citizens " 
who had fallen. 

The minutes of the Committee of Vigilance and Safety, extend- 
ing from its organization on August 24, 1814, through January 9, 
1815, were kept by James Wilson, member from the 4th Ward. 
The original manuscript, 160 pages long, was given by him to 
his grandson, James G. Wilson (1831-1904), in 1859, and was 
presented to the Maryland Historical Society in 1906 by William 
Bowly Wilson (1839-1915). The minutes from the beginning 



202 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

through August 31st have been printed in W. M. Marine, The 
British Invasion of Maryland, 1812-1813 (Baltimore, 1913), pp. 
133-145, but do not appear to have been published in their 
entirety. 

Baltimore 24th August 1814 

In conformity to the recomme[n]dation and resolves of a meeting of 
a number of citizens convened by the Mayor at the Council Chamber on 
the 23d instant — Meeings were held in the different wards at 10 o'clock 
yesterday morning, when the following persons were duly elected, in 
each ward, to form a general Committee of Vigilance and Safety during 
the present times of alarm — ^to wit — 

1st Ward 

Somon'Ettiny^ 1 ^^^f Chairman and Solomon 

Elias EUicott * » J °^ ""^^ 

* Wm. Jessop * in E. E.'s place 

2d Ward 
Samuel HoUingsworth ■* 
Benjamin Berry * 
Henry Payson '' 

3d Ward 
William Lorman ® 
James A. Buchanan • 
William Wilson " 

4th Ward 

riT.S»"" I Jacob Mye„...Cbi'«- 
James Wikon" J ]<«tu. Jones," Sect 

^ Henry Stouffer (d. 1835). 

"Solomon Etting (1764-1847), merchant, 278 Baltimore St. 

'Elias EUicott (d. 1826), flour merchant, EUicott's Wharf, dwelling 30 Sharp St. 

'William Jessop (d. 1829), merchant, 95 Bowly's Wharf, dw. 13 Fayette St. 

= Samuel HoUingsworth. (1757-1830), merchant, dw. 9 N. Charles St. 

* Benjamin Berry, brickmaker, cor. Lee and Sharp Sts. 

'Henry Payson (1762-1845), merchant, 15 Bowly's Wharf, dw. Hanover St. 
' A. I. Schwartz, merchant, 711/2 Bowly's Wharf. 

"William Lorman (1764-1841), merchant, dw. New Church [Lexington] cor. 
N. Charles St. 

'"James A. Buchanan (d. 1840), merchant, Washington Sq. [Monument Sq.] 

"William Wilson (1750-1824), shipping merchant, 105 Baltimore St. 

•"James Calhoun (1743-1816), 1st Mayor of Baltimore (1797). 

"John HollinS (d. 1827), merchant, dw. Washington Sq. 

"William Patterson (1752-1835), merchant, 18 South St. 

" Adam Fonerden (1750-1817), merchant (diy goods), 54 Baltimore St. 

"James Wilson (1775-1851), merchant, dw. Holliday St. 

"Jacob Myers (d. 1822), merchant, 55 Baltimore St., dw. Mdliday St. 

" Joshua Jones, woollen draper, 56 Baltimore St 



Henry Payson, chairman 
A. I. Schwartz* — Sect. 



James Calhoun,^^ Chairman 
John Hollins,", Sect. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



5th Ward 

Joseph Jamison 1 

Cumberland Dugan ' 

William Camp J 

6th Ward 
James Armstrong 
James Taylor 
Peter Bond 

7th Ward 
Robert Stewart 
Frederick Schaffer 
Richard Stevens J 

8th Ward 
Hezekiah Waters 
David Burke 
George Woelpert'' 

Eastern Precincts 
Hermanns Alricks 
John Kelso »» 
Richard Frisby 

Western Precincts 
Col. John E. Howard 
George Warner 
Theodorick Bland '"' 



Cumberland Dugan, Chairman 
George Franciscus,^^ Sect. 



James Taylor, chairman 
James Wilson,^" Sect. 



Robert Stewart, chairman 
William B. Barney.^" Sect. 



Hezekiah Waters, chairman 
John Snyder," Sect. 



Hermanus Alricks, Chairman 
Richard Frisby, Sect. 



Emmanuel Kent,*i Chairman 
Theodorick Bland, Sect. 



" Joseph Jamison, 42 N. Frederick St. 

""Cumberland Dugan (1759-1836), merchant, S. Gay St. 

"William Camp (1774-1822), cabinetmaker, 26 Water St. 

" George Franciscus, jeweller and silversmith, 30 Baltimore St. ' 

"'James Armstrong (d. 1823), merchant, 94 High St. 

" James Taylor, 14 High St. 

"Peter Bond (d. 1821), merchant, 9 Bridge [Gay] St. 

" James Wilson, justice of the peace, 23 Bridge St. 

"Robert Stewart (d. 1840?), Duke [Gratiby} St. 

°' Frederick Schaffer — ^not in directory. 

"Richard Stevens (d. 1829), sea captain, 107 Bond St. 

=° William B. Barney (1780-1838), Queen St. Son of Com. Joshua Barney. 

"Hezekiah Waters, merchant, 33 Pitt [Fayette] St. 

David Burke, boat builder, 4 George St. 

George Woelpert, butcher, 40 George St. 
"John Snyder (1757-1827), ship chandler, 41 Fells [Thames] St. 
" Hermanus Alricks (1764-1840). 
"John Kelso (1767-1850). 
"Richard Frisby (d. 1845). 

"John Eager Howard (1752-1827), "Belvidere" estate. 
"George Warner (1769-1829). 

"Theodorick Bland (1776-1846), judge of 6th district. 
*^ Emanuel Kent, merchant. Pica St. nr. Franklin — ^had son Emanuel who was 
private in Capt. Pennington's Company and lost m atm at Nortfi Point. 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Baltimore 24th August 1814 

At a meeting of the committee of Vigilance & Safety elected from the 
se-veral vvards and each of the Precincts of the city of Baltimore held 
at the Council Chamber at 5 o'clock P. M. this day in pursuance of Public 
Notice — ^When Edward Johnson, Esqr, the Mayor, being called to the 
Chair, and Theodorick Bland Esqr appointed Secretary — ^The Mayor in 
a short address opened to the Committee the general nature and objects 
of the business proposed to be submitted to their consideration — 

On motion Resolved, That Mr. Buchanan, Mr. Bland and Mr. Payson 
be a Committee to prepare an address to the citizens which shall be sub- 
mitted to this Committee for their approbation at their next meeting — 

Resolved, That this Committee meet every day at 10 o'clock A. M. 
in the Council Chamber — 

The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 25th August 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
when the proceedings of yesterday were read^ — 

The Committee charged with the drafting of an address to the citizens 
made a report which was ordered to lie on the table — 

The following Resolutions were then moved & adopted 

1, Resolved, That all good citizens be and they are hereby requested to 
give to this committee any information they may have relative to suspected 
persons or places — and that the members of this Committee be and they 
are hereby required to appoint such person or persons as they may think 
proper in each ward or precinct to search suspected persons and places — 
And the persons so appointed shall report to this Committee any 
information that may be obtained — 

2 — ^Resolved, That the owners of Vessels now moored and made fast 
at or near the wharves of the city are hereby directed to remove their 
Vessels immediately to some place below Harris' Creek for the greater 
security — ■ 

3 — Resolved That all Deserters from tlie enemy shall during the present 
time of alarm be confined to the Goal and Goal yard, where their situation 
shall be made as comfortable as the nature of things will admit; that 
any extra expense for that purpose shall be provided for by this commitee, 
and tliat Mr. Frisby, Mr. Kelso and Mr. Bland be and they are hereby 
appointed to adjust with the Goaler the amount of such extra expense 
and to report to this committee — 

4th Whereas it has been communicated to this Committee by Brig. Genl. 
Strieker,*^ Com. Perry,** Maj. Armstead and Capt. Spence in person 

"Edward Johnson (1767-1829), physician, dw. King George {Lombard] St. 
near Brown's brewery " — mayor 1808-16. 
"John Strieker (1758-1825). 
"Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819). 

"George Armistead (1780-1818). In CMnmand at Fort McHenry. 
"Robert Traill Spence (1785-1826). 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



205 



that it is their wish that Mag. Genl. Smith be requested to take the 
Command of the Forces which may be called into service for the defence 
of the city, therefore — ^Resolved, That, Col. John E. Howard, Mr. Frisby 
and Mr. Stewart be appointed to wait on MaJ. Genl. Smith and to com- 
municate to him the information this Committee have received, to state 
that they unanimously concur with the same, and to request that he would 
at this important crisis take upon himself the command of the Forces 
that may be called out for the defence of out City — 

5 — Resolved, That the gentlemen named in the forgoing resolution wait 
on Maj. Genl. Smith and report his answer to this committee forthwith — 

The gentlemen who were so appointed accordingly retired and after 
a short time reported that Maj. Genl. Smith was at this time willing and 
would take upon himself the command of the Forces that might be called 
out for the defence of the City, but that he wished to be sanctioned in 
so doing by the Executive of this State and that his powers might be 
extended; whereupon it was 

6. Resolved That Mr. Buchanan, Mr. Bland & Mr. Frisby be and they 
are hereby appointed to address a letter to the Governor of this State 
requesting him to invest Maj. Genl. Smith with powers in every respect 
commensurate to the present exigency, which shall be forwarded immedi- 
ately by express; and that they report to this committee at their next 
meeting — 

The cocomittee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 26th August 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met according to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read and the first, second, & fourth 
Resolutions and the names- of this Committee were ordered to be pub- 
lished — (Mr. Bland from the Committee reported that the Goaler had 
agreed to receive hold & maintain in a comfortable manner any Deserter.s 
that might be committed to him for the sum of twenty five cents per day — 

On motion it was — ^Resolved. That four seamen who have presented 
themselves as deserters from the enemy be placed under the care of a 
Constable and at the expense of this Committee conveyed beyond the 
Susquehanna where there shall be given, to each out of the funds of this 
Committee the sum of two dollars — 

2 — ^Resolved, That Mr. Daniel Conner be and he is hereby requested 
to place himself in the service of this Committee for a compensation to be 
hereafter agreed upon ; and that it be his duty, vigilantly to search for all 
suspected strangers or other persons, and in a discreet exercise of this 
authority, to report such persons to, or bring them before the mayor — 

3. Resolved, That the Mayor be and is hereby authorised and directed 
to employ an additional watch, to guard the City and precincts, and that 
the expense be paid out of the funds of the Committee of Vigilance and 

*' Daniel Conner (d. 1822), merchant, 68 Albemarle St. 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Safety ; and that the city commissioners and the companies of the Eastern 
and Western Precincts, be requested to aid him in the execution thereof — 

4 — ^Whereas in the present exigency, money will be wanted for various 
purposes, therefore. 

Resolved, That the inhabitants of the City and Precincts be and they 
are hereby invited to contribute thereto by calling at the Mayors Office, 
who will receive such contributions, and will publish the names of the 
contributors and the sums by them severally given, to be appropriated 
to such objects as the coimnittee of vigilance & safety may authorise and 
direct — 

Ordered that the third and fourth of the foregoing Resolutions be 
published — 

Mr. Buchannan from the committee appointed to address a letter to 
the Governor reported that they had forwarded a letter by express a copy 
of which was read and approved — 

A Letter from the Governor in answer to that which was address[ed] 
to him from this committee respecting Maj. Genl. Smith's command was 
received & read — 

Baltimore 27th August 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adj9urnment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

On motion the following resolutions were adopted to wit — 

Whereas the Commanding officer has requested the aid of the citizens, 
in the erection of works for the defence of the city, and the Committee 
of Vigilance and Safety having full confidence in the patriotism of their 
fellow citizens, have agreed on the following organization for the purpose 
of complying with the request of the Major General — 

The inhabitants of the city and .precincts are called on to deposit at 
the Court House in the third ward. Centre Market in the fifth ward. Riding 
School, in the seventh ward, Market House Fells Point, and take with them 
to the place required all wheel barrows, pick axes, spades & shovels that 
they can procure — 

That the city and precincts be divided into four sections the first 
section to consist of the Eastern precincts and the eighth ward, the second 
to comprize the 5th 6th and 7th wards, and the third to comprize the 2d. 
3d. and 4th wards, and the fourth to comprize the 1st v/ard and the West- 
ern precincts — 

That the exempts from militia duty and the free people of colour, of 
the first district, consisting of the 8th ward and the Eastern Precincts, 
assemble tomorrow, Sunday morning, at 6 o'clock, at Hampstead Hill, 
v/ith provisions for the day, and that Arthur Mitchell,*' Daniel Conn,*' 
Henry Penninghm,'"' John Chalmers,"^ William Starr,^^ Thomas Weary, 

"Arthur Mitchell, cooper, 93 French [Front] St. 

"Daniel Conn (d. 1836), carpenter, Aisquith St. 

°° Henry Pennington (d. 1825), inspector of lime, 74 Green St, 

"John Chalmers (d. 1817). 

"William Starr (d. 1819). 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



207 



Henry Harwood, and Philip Cunmilkr, be charged with the superintead- 
ance during the day — 

That the second District, comprising the 5th, 6th, and 7th wards assem- 
ble at Myers Garden on Monday moming under the superintendance of 
William Parks,=3 Capt Watts," Ludwick Herring,== William Ross,^'' Wil- 
liam Carman,"' Daniel Rowland,''^ Caleb Ernest, and James Hutton — 

That those of the third district, comprising the 2d. 3d. and 4th wards 
assemble at Washington Square on Tuesday morning, under the superin- 
tendance of Frederi^ Leypold/" William McClary,*^ John McKim junr.^^ 
Henry Schroeder's Alexander McDonald,'* Eli Hewitt,'* Peter GoId»« 
and Alexander Russell '^ — 

That those of the fourth district comprising the 1st ward and the West- 
em precincts, assemble at the intersection of Eutaw and Market Streets 
on Wednesday under the superintendance of William W. Taylor,"^ Wil- 
liam Jessup, Edward Harris, George Decker,'" William Hawkins,^^ Isaac 
Philips," William Jones and John Hignet " — 

The owners of slaves are requested to send them to work on the days 
assigned in the several districts — 

Such of our patriotic fellow citizens of the country or elsewhere, as 
are disposed to aid in the common' defence are invited to partake in the 
duties now required, on such days as may be most convenient to them — 

Ordered, That the foregoing Resolution be published— 

Ordered, That John Kelso, George Woelpert, Robert Stewart, Peter 
Bond, William Camp, Adam Fonerden, William Lorman, Benjamin Berry, 
Henry Stouffer, and George Warner members of this Committee be and 
they are hereby requested to give notice to the persons appointed to carry 
into effect the foregoing Resolution in the several districts and to aid them 
with their advice and assistance — 

"William Parks (d. 1823). 

" Joseph Watts, sea captain. Wolf nr. Milk St. 

"Ludwig Herring (d. 1817), lumber merdiant, 17 McElderry's Wharf, dw. 78 

Albemarle St. 

"William Ross (1760-1820), merdiant, 7 Baltimore St. (cor. Market Space). 

William Carman, slate manufacturer. High St. 

Daniel Howland, merchant, dw. 22 N. Frederick St. 
"James Hutton (d. 1838), grocer, 24 Baltimore St. 
'"' Frederick Leypold (1771-1821), grocer, 61 N. Gay St. 
" William McCleary, bootmaker, 35 South St. 
"John McKim, Jr. (1767-1842), merchant, 108 Baltimore St. 

Henry Schroeder (1764-1839), merchant, 167 Baltimore St., dw. 54 N. 
Charles St. 

" Alexander McDonald (1752-1832), grocer, cor. Ann and Alisanna Sts. 

" Eli Hewitt, tobacconist, 232 Baltimore St. 

°" Peter Gold (1793-1847), sea captain, 17 S. Charles St. 

" Alexander Russell, brickmaker, Lee nr. Goodman St. 

"William W. Taylor (d. 1832), merchant, 266 Baltimore St., dw. Eutaw St. 
""Edward Harris (d. 1837), physician, 280 Baltimore St. 
"George Decker (1764-1846), raeichan^ 24 N. Howard St. 
"William Hawkins (1754-1818). 

" Isaac Phillips, merchant, cor. Paca and Fayette Sts., dw. N. Howard St. 
"John Hignat (d. 1822), brickmaker, Washington St. 



3 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Ordered, That Adam Fonerden, James Wilson and James Armstrong 
be and they are hereby appointed as a standing Committee of Accounts — 
The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 28th August 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

The committee were informed by a letter from Elias EUicott that, as 
his religious principles, (to wit, those of a quaker) would not permit 
him to interfere in military affairs, he therefore resigned his station as a 
member of this committee — 

On motion Resolved, That this committee will fill up all vacancies 
occasioned in its own body by resignation or otherwise — 

Resolved, That Mr. William Jessup be and he is hereby appointed a 
member of this committee to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation 
of Elias Ellicott — ■ 

Resolved, Tliat, Mr. Etting, Mc. Taylor and Capt. Stevens be and they 
are hereby appointed to provide a Hospital or suitable accommodation 
for the sick and wounded of the Forces that are or may be called out for 
the defence of the City and. to rqjort to this committee at their next 
meeting — 

The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 29th August 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
the proceedings of yesterday were read — 

On motion Resolved, That Samuel HoUingsworth, Adam Fonerden, 
Cumberland Dugan, and Joseph Jamison or any three of them with the 
Mayor be and they are hereby appointed to examine all deserters frcmi the 
enemy that may be apprehendetf and brou^t b^CKe them and to report to 
this committee — 

The members appointed to provide quarters for the sick and wounded 
made report that they had obtained the use of the public Hospital from 
Doctors McKenzie & Smythe in which there were accommodations for 
about one thousand — ^and that the compensation for the same was to be 
such as this committee should here after deem reasonable — 

Mr. Jessup who was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Mr. Ellicott appeared and took his seat as a member — 

Resolved, That it be and is hereby most earnestly recommended to the 
good people of the State of Maryland to be extremely circumspect in their 
communications respecting the movements of the Enemy and our pre- 
parations and disposition to resist him — In a particular manner they are 
exhorted to abstain from the expression of any opinions calculated to 
inspire a belief that the people of Baltimore will be found wanting in 

'* The Maryland Hospital, begun on the present site of the Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital in 1798, was constructed with .the aid of funds appropriated by the State 
Legislature. In 1808 it was leased to Drs. McKenzie and Smyth for 15 years. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



209 



what is due to themselves — ^The Committee are urged to this measure by 
perceiving as they do, with indignation that. Letters, degrading to our 
character have appeared in some of the distant papers; the writers and 
publishers of such must be alike objects of contempt to all who have 
any attachment for their country — 

Ordered, That the foregoing Resolution be published immediately — 
Resolved, That Mr. Payson, Mr. Lorman, & Mr. Jas. Wilson be and 
they are hereby appointed to wait on Maj. Genl. Smith and inform him 
that from the zeal manifested by our fellow citizens in the erection of 
works of defence as directed, they feel great pleasure in assuring him 
that, if he should deem it necessary to order the extension of those or 
the erection of other works, that they will be promptly undertaken — and 
that they be further instructed to inform the Major General that in what- 
ever way the services of the Committee of Vigilance and Safety can be 
useful in providing for the comforts of their patriotic fellow Citizens in 
Arms, they will cheerfully undertake the same — and that they report to 
this Committee at their next meeting — 

Baltimore 30th August 18X4 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

On motion Resolved, That the Resolution passed by this Committee 
on the 25th of this month relative to deserters from the Enemy be and the 
same is hereby repealed — 

Resolved, That George Warner, Solomon Etting, WiUiam Jessup, David 
Burke and George Woelper be and they are hereby appointed a committee 
to wait on the Quarter Master General and tender to him their aid and 
that of this Committee in providing suitable accommodations for our 
fellow citizens in arms, who are assembling for the common defence — 

Resolved, That, it be the particular and permanent duty of the above 
named committee, diligently to inquire into the wants of the Troops on 
their arrival and that they make known the same from time to time to this 
Committee and to those authorities in the staff department who are com- 
petent to supplying the same — ■ 

Whereas the Committee of Vigilance and Safety have received informa- 
tion from a respectable source that certain individuals are in the constant 
habit of making use of very improper and intemperate expressions, 
calculated to produce discussion, and to defeat the preparations making 
for the defence of our City — therefore — 

Resolved, That Richard Frisby, William Camp and Peter Bond be and 
they are hereby appointed to investigate cases of this kmd and make an 
immediate report to this board — 

On motion the following address and appeal to our fellow citizens 
of the Country was adopted — ^to wit — 

The ardour with which our fellow citizens in arms of this and the 
neighbouring states are hastening to the defence of our City affords the 
strongest evidence of the patriotism of our yeomanry and inspires this 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



committee with an earnest desire to make their situation here perfectly 
comfortable — The Committee reposes unlimited confidence in the dis- 
position of the good people in this and the neighbouring states who are 
not employed in a military capacity to aid in this laudable purpose and 
they therefore confidently call upon them individually and collectively 
to bring to the city for sale such supplies as may contribute to the comfort 
of those to whom, under Providence, the safety of this City is confined — 
llie Committee are authorised by the Major General to assure those who 
visit our City with the laudable intention of contributing to the comforts 
of its brave defenders that they shall be permitted to transact their business 
free from the danger of impressment to their waggons carts or Horses or 
of any species of interruption to themselves, and that if there be any 
cause of complaint the same shall be promptly removed on application to 
this committee — ■ 

Editors of news papers are requested to give this publicity — 
Ordered That the foregoing address be published immediately, printed 
in handbills and disseminated as widely as possible — 

Whereas the commanding oiBcer has requested the further aid of the 
citizens in completing the works already so far advanced; and in erecting 
others for the defence of the city; and the Committee of Vigilance and 
Safety having full confidence in the patriotism of their fellow citizens — 
therefore — 

Resolved, That the city and precincts, be divided into four districts, 
and that the exempts from militia duty and the free people of color, of 
the first district consisting of the 8th ward and Eastern precincts, be and 
they are hereby requested to assemble on Thursday next, and that Arthur 
Mitchell, Daniel Conn, Henry Pennington, John Chalmers, William Starr, 
Thomas Weary, Henry Harwood, Philip Cunmiller, John Price," Bazil 
Smith,^" John Gracy,'' John Schunck, John Smith, and Calvin Cooper,''' 
be charged with the superintendance during the day — 

That those of the second district, comprising the 5th, 6th and 7th wards, 
assemble on Friday next, under the superinendance of William Parks, 
Capt. Watts, Ludwick Herring, William Ross, William Carman, Caleb 
Arnest, Jacob Miller,*" Robert Fisher,*^ John Gross,^^ James Hutton and 
George Auckerman — 

That those of the third district comprising the 2d. 3d. and 4th wards 
assemble on Saturday next, under the superintendance of Frederick 
Leypold, William McClary, John McKim junr., Henry Schroeder, 
Alexander McDonald, Edi Hewitt, Peter Gold, and Alexander Russell — , 
and — 

" John Price, ship carpenter, 17 Pitt St. 

" Basil Smith, ship carpenter, Pitt St. 

" John Gracey, carpenter, Aisquith St. 

" John Smith, cordwainer, Pitt St. ext. nr. Hampstead Hill. 

"Calvin Cooper, grocer, 57 Bond St. 

Jacob Miller, tanner, Jones St. 
" Robert Fisher (1762-1824), lumber merchant. Spear's Wharf, dw. 46 Tones St. 

John Gross (d. 1840), grocer. Bridge St. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



211 



That those of the fourth district, comprising the first ward and western 
precincts, assemble on Sunday next, under the superintendance of William 
W. Taylor, William Jessup, Edward Harris, George Decker, William 
Hawkins, Isaac Philips, William Jones, John Hignet, Charles Bohn,*' 
Alexander Irvine,^* Ferdinando Gourdon,^^ and Jonas Clopham 

That John Kelso, George Woelpert, Robert Stewart, Peter Bond, Wil- 
liam Camp, Adam Fonerden, William Lorman, Benjamin Berry, Henry 
Stouffer, and George Warner, members of this committee be and they are 
hereby requested to give notice, to the persons appointed as super- 
intendants in their several districts, and to aid them with their advice and 
assistance 

The owners of slaves are requested to send them to work, on the days 
assigned to the several districts ; and such of our patriotic fellow citizens 
of the countr)', or elsewhere as are disposed to aid in the common defence, 
are invited to partake in the further duties now required on such days 
as may be most convenient — 

The committee then adjourned 

Baltimore 31st August 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pureuant to adjournment — 
Ihe proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Mr. Warner from the Committee appointed to wait on the Quarter 
Master General reported that they had done so and acquainted him with 
the readiness of this committee to cooperate in any way for the common 
good — 

Mr. Hollingsworth from the committee appointed to examine Deserters 
from the Enemy reported, that, they had examined three, of whom they 
entertained no apprehensions but submitted to this committee for their 
consideration the propriety of sending such persons, at least some distance 
into the Country — 

Resolved, That the chairman of this committee be and he is hereby 
authorised and requested to give to each of the abovementioned deserters 
five dollars from the funds of this committee, a passport, and order them 
to go out of the State of Maryland — 

Ordered, That the Letter from the Major General to this Committee 
respecting a deposit in the Banks on loan be and the same is hereby 
referred to Mr. William Willson Mr. Waters and Mr. Payson with power 
and a request to communicate with the other Presidents and Directors of 
Banks and to report to this committee at its next meeting 

This Committee were informed by their chairman that Mr. Robert C. 
Long wth thirty carpenters in his imploy had tendered their services to 
this committee whenever called on and in whatever manner they might 
be required — 

"Charles Bohn, merchant, 262 Baltimore St. 

'* Alexander Irvine (d. 1821), merchant, 21 N. Howard St. 

Ferdinand Gourdon (d. 1834), merchant, 3 Sharp St. 

Jonas Clapham (d. 1837) 

Robert Calry Long (1770-1833), carpenter, Conawago [Lexington] St. 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Whereas the duties imposed on this committee, engrossing much of 
their attention, and it being necessary that immediate steps be taken to 
raise a Committee of Relief whose duty it shall be, to solicit subscriptions 
in money & necessaries for the relief of the poor and distressed, more 
particularly to be applied to the aid and support of families, whose distress 
is immediately occasioned, by the calling of the chief supporters of their 
families, on public service: therefore — 

Resolved, That James Ellicott,^^ WiUiam W. Taylor, Elisha Tyson.s* 
Richard H. Jones,«o Levin Wethered,»i Luke Tieman," William Riley,»» 
James Mosher,** Joseph Townsend,^" Peter Diffenderffer,*' William 
Erown,«' Daniel Diffenderffer,^'' William Trimble, William Mundle,i<>" 
William Proctorj^^i and John Ogsden,^°2 )-,£ ^nd they are hereby appointed 
a Committee of Relief requiring them in such manner as they shall think 
proper to adopt, to solicit subscriptions in money or other necessary sup- 
plies for the poor, and that they appoint a committee or committees, to 
ascertain by the best possible means, the situation and wants of the families 
of those called out on the present emergency, as well as all others who 
may probably need assistance, and that they distribLite from time to time, 
with judicious care, such aid & comforts as they shall think proper — 

The COTMiHttee then sdjo^med — 

Baltimore 1st September 1814 

The Committee of vigilance and saTety met pursuant to adjournment — 
the proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Ordered, That the Letter from the Surgeons of the different Regiments 
attached to the command of Genl. Stansburys brigade be and the same 
is hereby referred to the committee appointed to aid the Quarter Master 
General, to act upon and report to this committee — 

Whereas it is presumed that additional buildings for the accommodation 
of the Troops will be required and it having been signified to this com- 
mittee by Maj. Genl. Smith as his wish that temporary Shed-Barracks in 
convenient situations be erected — therefore — 

Resolved, That, Robert C. Long with the patriotic company of Car- 
penters in his imploy, who are exempt from military duty and who have 

"James EUicott (d. 1820). 

Elisha Tyson (1749-1824), 45 Sharp St. 
" Richard H. Jones, currier, 8 Cheapside, dw. 76 Pratt St. 
"Lewin Wethered (1778-1863), merchant, 155 Baltimore St., dw. Sharp St. 
" Luke Tiernan (1757-1839). 
""William Riley (d. 1825), bootmaker. East St. 

"James Mosher (d. 1845), pres. Mechanic's Bank, New Church nr. Calvert St. 
""Joseph Townsend (1756-1841). 

"•Peter Diffenderfifer (d. 1842), hardware merchant, 28 Baltimore St. 
"William Brown (d. 1828). 

"'Daniel Diffenderffer (d. 1819), 34 Great York [East Baltimore St.]. 
""William Trimble (d. 1819), Granby St. 

William Mundell, grocer, Fleet St. [Canton Ave.] 
"'William Proctor (d. 1860), merctawit, 10 Fells St. 
"^John Ogston (1770-1834). ^ 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



213 



offered their services, or any others exempt from military duty, willing to 
be so employed, be immediately requested to erect the same under the 
superintendance of the committee appointed to aid the Quarter Master 
General in the discharge of his duties, — and that Robert C. Long be 
furnished with a Copy of this Resolution and the names of the Com- 
mittee — 

The committee to whom was referred an enquiry into the conduct of 
Joseph Presbury a Justice of the Peace of Fells Point, beg leave to 
report that, they have examined several respectable witnesses upon this 
subject and are perfectly satisfied from the testimony produced, that, 
the conduct of the said Presbury is highly censurable, and that he is 
frequently in the habit of expressing sentiments unworthy of an American 
citizen — That he has on a very recent occasion rejoiced at the difficulties 
and embarrassments into which he expected our Government would in all 
probability be thrown, and manifested pleasure at the powerful rein- 
forcements which the Enemy were pouring into our Country — ^Your 
Committee further beg leave to represent that, tlie general character of the 
said Presbury appears to be marked with strongest impropriety, that, it has 
a tendency as far as his influence may extend, to damp the ardour of our 
patriotic citizens in defence of our City, and is highly derogatory to an 
officer holding a commission from the State of Maryland — Your Com- 
mittee consider it as one of those cases which calls for the interposition 
of your Board, but leave it to your wisdom and judgment to mark out a 
proper course to be pursued — all which is respectfully submitted — ^Richard 
Frisby Chairman — 

Ordered That, a Copy of the foregoing Report be transmitted to the 
Governor of this State and that he be respectfully requested to take the 
same into consideration and to remove the said Presbury from the office of 
Justice of the Peace 

Whereas this Committee are informed by a letter of this date from 
Maj. Genl. Smith that "orders have been received from the war depart- 
ment to send off the 19 pounders on travelling carriages " — and as the 
Guns are the property of the United States and the carriages the property 
of the city of Baltimore — and as the Committee are of opinion that those 
Guns are indispensably necessary for the protection of this city — there- 
fore — • 

Resolved That the Major General be and he is hereby requested to retain 
the Gun Carriages as the property of the City as long as they may be, 
by him deemed useful, and also that, he remonstrate against and do all he 
can to prevent the removal of Guns which are believed to be so important 
to our defence — 

Mr. Payson from the Committee to whom was referred Maj. Genl. 

Smiths Letter requiring the Banks to place at the disposal of the Quarter 
Masters and Commissary's department a sum of money as mentioned in 
that communication, Reports That, the Banks of this city have accorded 
therewith, and that the money will forthwith be placed as required — ■ 

"'Joseph Presbury, justice of the peace, 661-2 Bond St., dw. 19 Wilke St. 
[Eastern Ave.] 



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Resolved, That Mr. Stouffer and Mr. Bond be and they are hereby 
requested to have the nuisance immediately removed from the Circus, 
v/hich is at present occupied by our Troops, and any expense in doing 
the same shall be defrayed out of the funds of this Committee — 

The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 2d. September 1814 

Tlie Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Mr. Burke from the committee to whom was referred the Letter from 
the surgeons attached to Geni. Stansburys Brigade respecting certain 
conveniences for the army made report that upon enquiry the conveniences 
asked for were unnecessary and therefore they had not provided them: 
which report was received and concurred with — 

Resolved That the Committee of Superintendants be and they are hereby 
directed to detail from the workmen of the third District tomorrow 
morning two hundred men, to be employed under the direction of Capt. 
Babcock and that on the following day the same number of men be de- 
tached from the fourth District and th*t flic same plan be followed by the 
Districts in rotation — 

Resolved, That the inhabitants of the 2d. 3d and 4th Wards in per- 
forming their tour of duty tomorrow, Saturday, are requested to assemble 
at the Court House, Tomorrow morning at 6 o'clock, as two hundred of 
them will be wanted to commence works of defence on Camp-look-out- 
Hill, near the Magazine under the direction of Capt. Babcodc, and the 
remainder to progress with the works already commenced — and that the 
inhabitants of the 1st Ward and western Precincts will assemble for the 
same purpose at the intersection of Market and Eutaw streets, on Sunday 
morning at 6 o'clock — 

Ordered That the foregoing Resolution be published for the information 
of the citizens forthwith — 

Ordered, That so much of the Letter from the Major General as relates 
to Hospital surgeons be and the same is hereby referred to the Committee 
heretofore appointed to procure a Hospital for the sick, and that they 
comply as soon as possible with the request respecting Hospital surgeons 
and report to this committee — 

Whereas it has been represented to this conunittee that the Regimental 
funds of the Baltimore Brigade have proved inadequate to supplying the 
same with music, and further that some of the commandants of Regiments 
have in part supplied such deficiency out of their private funds — therefore 

Resolved, That one hundred dollars be paid out of the funds of this 
committee to each of the paymasters of the six Regiments composing Genl. 
Strickers Brigade to be applied in payment of music and that Genl. Strieker 
be furnished with a Copy of this Resolution — 

Resolved, That, Mr. Burke, Mr. Stevens and Mr. Bond be and they are 
hereby authorised to fit up and prepare for service the Guns now under 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



215 



the care of Mr. Beatty.^"* or any others, that may be deemed useful by 
the commanding officer, and that the expense thereof be defrayed out of 
the funds of this Committee — 

Resolved, That Mr. Dugan, Mr. Berry and Mr. Alrecks be and they are 
hereby appointed to aid Mr. Brawner in converting the Flour and bread 
foi the use of the Troops — 

The G)mmittee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 3d. September 18X4 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Mr. Dugan from the Committee appointed to aid in having the Flour 
baked into bread for the use of the Troops reported, That they had entered 
into a written contract with Francis W. Bolgiano to bake bread for 
the use of this committee which was received, ratified, and ordered to 
be filed — 

The Committee to whom was referred the requisition of Major Genl. 
Smith for six Hospital surgeons to attend on the sick and at the Hospital 
beg leave to report. That in consequence of the authority vested in them 
by the Committee of Vigilance and Safety they have appointed Doctor 
Colin McKinzie ^"^ Hospital surgeon and authorised him to appoint Doc- 
tors James Middleton,^'"' Horatio Jameson,^"* William Turner, George 
Frick and Charles Richardson assistants, who will be called into the 
Hospital as Doctor McKenzie may find their services necessary — ^I'hey 
also beg leave to report that, when they visited the Hospital, they were 
informed by Mr. Gatchell that he had received orders to procure 
groceries and medicines, but that some other articles would probably be 
required for the comfort of the sick, which your committee directed him 
to procure until an arrangement could be made to obtain them in a regu- 
lar way, the appointments now made it is presumed will remove this 
difficulty — ■ 

Which Report was read and concurred with— 

Resolved, That Mr. Stewart, Mr. Waters and Mr. Schaffer be and they 
are hereby appointed to have a bridge of scows from Pattersons Wharf, 
Fells Point, to the nearest land on the opposite shore, erected immediately, 
in the manner directed & requested by the Major General in his com- 
munication of this date and to report to this committee — 

Whereas, The Commander has required still further aid from the 
citizens in completing the works of defence already begun and in erecting 

James Beatty (1770-1851), merchant and navy agent, McClure's Wharf. 
""Francis W. Bolgiano (d. 1832), baker, 69 S. Frederick St. 
""Colin McKenzie (1775-1827). 

"'James Middleton (d. 1818), physician, 12 N. Gay St. 

»"» Horatio Gates Jameson (1778-1865), druggist, 16 N. Howard St. Later 
founder of the Washington Medical College and consulting physician to the Board 
of Health. 

"'George Frick (1793-1870). 

^"Jeremiah Gatchell (d. 1822), steward of Baltimore Hospital. 



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others, and it being highly desirable to expedite such works by every 
possible means, and the Committee of Vigilance and Safety feeling an 
entire and undiminished confidence in their fellow citisens ; therefore — 

Resolved, That the City shall hereafter be laid off and divided into 
two Districts; the first of which shall comprise all that part of the City 
together with the Eastern Precincts, East of Jones' Falls, and all the 
residue of the City with the western precincts shall compose the second 
District- 
That all exempts, people of colour and others, able and willing to 
labour, of each District be, and they are hereby most earnestly invited 
and requested to turn out and labour on the works of Defence in their 
respective Districts on Monday next and every day thereafter they can 
find it convenient — 

That Arthur Mitchell, Daniel Conn, Henry Pennington, John Chalmers, 
William Starr, Thomas Weary, Henry Harwood, Philip Cunmiller, John 
Price, Bazel Smith, John Gracy, John Schunck, John Smith, William Parks, 
Capt. Watts, Ludwick Herring, William Carman, Jacob Miller, Robert 
Fisher, John Gross, George Auckerman, John Mackenhumer,^ii Mr. 
Moran, Robert Wilson, and Hezekiah Price be and they are hereby 
appointed a committee of superintendance for the first or Eastern District — 
That William Ross, Caleb Arnest, James Hutton, Frederick Leypold, 
William McClary, John McKim junr., Henry Schroeder, Alexander 
McDonald, Eli Hewitt, Peter Gold, Alexander Russell, William W. Tay- 
lor, Edward Harris, George Decker, William Hawkins, Isaac Philips, 
William Jones, John Hignet, Charles Bohn, Alexander Irvine, Ferdinand 
Gourdon, and Jonas Clopham, be and they are hereby appointed a com- 
mittee of superintendants, for the second or Western District — 

That each of those committees make such division of themselves, into 
sub-committees, appoint deputies, and make such arrangements as will best 
suit their own convenience, and ensure a faithful discharge of their duty — ■ 
That Richard Frisby, George Woelper, John Kelso, George Warner, 
Henry Stouffer and Adam Fonerden, members of this Committee be, and 
they are hereby requested to give notice to the persons appointed as super- 
intendants in their several Districts, and to aid them widi their advice and 
assistance — 

The owners of slaves are requested to send them to work in the Districts 
in which they reside, and such of our patriotic fellow citizens of the 
country or elsewhere, as are disposed to aid in the common defence, are 
invited to partake in the further duties now required, at such times as 
may be most convenient — 

The CMomittee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 4th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

John Mackenheimer (1754-1823), 42 Bridge St. 
"" Robert Wilson (1771-1844), cashier. Bank of Maryland, 15 South St. 
Hezekiah Price, lumber merchant, 58 Bridge St. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



217 



Resolved, That Mr. Stouffer, Mr. Berry & Mr. Jessup be, and they are 
hereby appointed to procure Palisades for the Fortifications now erecting 
on Camp-look-out Hill at the most convenient place and in the most 
expeditious way possible — [This entire paragraph was x-ed out, and the 
word Error " inserted in the margin.] 

Resolved, That the members of this Committee appointed to aid the 
superintendants be and they are hereby requested to confer with Capt. 
Babcock, the Engineer, as to the number of labourers and implements 
that may be wanted from day to day to carry on & complete the works 
of Defence, and that they be and are hereby authorised to provide the 
same — 

Ordered, That the communication from the surgeons of the third 
Brigade of Maryland Militia lie on the Table — 
llie Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 5th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceeding of yesterday were read — 

Major DeFourville, an Engineer, who had hitherto aided in erecting 
works of Defence, on being introduced to the Committee tendered his 
services gratis to the citizens directing the erection of works proper for 
its defence, and also submitted some observations respecting the works 
already begun and others which were deemed necessary and proper — 

Mr. Fonerden from the committee who were appointed to confer with 
Capt. Babcock: Reported that he had done so, that Capt. Babcock required 
two hundred hands on this day and would inform the committee of the 
number wanted from day to day and further that Capt. Babcock wanted 
a Horse to enable him to attend to his duties — therefore — 

Ordered Tliat Capt. Babcock be furnished with a Horse — 

Resolved, That George Woelper be and he is hereby appointed a super- 
intendant whose duty it shall be to hire one hundred labourers to be 
employed in raising breast works on the Road towards North Point for one 
week, as required by the communication of the Major General of this date 
and that said superintendant be authorised to hire said labourers on the 
best terms in his Power and to furnish them with Provisions and other 
necessaries and to furnish an account thereof to this Committee — 

Resolved, That a Superintendant be appointed whose duty it shall be 
to employ labourers not exceeding one hundred and fifty per day to work 
at the Fort erecting at Camp-look-out; and that said superintendant is 
hereby authorised to pay to each labourer not exceeding one dollar per 
day, they finding their own provisions and liquor; and that he be also 
directed to employ as many Carpenters and Mechanics as the Engineer may 
judge advisable, whose wages shall not exceed one dollar and twenty five 
cents per day; and that said labourers, carpenters and other mechanics 
be continued until the works are completed; and an account thereof be 
rendered to this Committee: and that Isaac Philips be & he is hereby 
appointed a superintendant to carry on the abovementioned work under 
the direction of the Engineer — 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Resolved, That a superintendant be appointed whose duty it shall be to 
employ labourers, not exceeding one hundred per day to work at the 
Fortifications erecting or about to be erected at the eastern end of the 
Town, and that said superintendant is hereby authorised to pay each 
labourer so employed a sum not exceeding one dollar per day, and to 
employ as many Carpenters and other mechanics as Major Armstead may 
deem adviseable, whose wages shall not exceed one dollar and twenty five 
cents per day, the said labourers and mechanics to accommodate themselves 
with victuals and drink; and that the said labourers Carpenters and other 
Mechanics be continued until the works are completed; and an account 
thereof be rendered to this Committee — 

E.esolved, That George Auckerman be the superintendant to carry into 
effect the foregoing Resolution — 

Ordered, That the Major General be furnished with a Copy of so 
much of the report of the committe of the 3d. instant respecting the Hos- 
pital, as relates to the appointment of six Hospital Surgeons — 

Ordered, That Mr. Fonerden be excused from further attendance as a 
member of this Committee to aid the superintendants, and that Mr. Jessup 
be & is hereby appointed in his stead — 

Tlie Committee then adjourned. [Inserted here is a slip, in another 
hand, reading: The Requisition for Thirty Scows Was made on the 
fifth Day of September 1814 and Continued in Service untill thirtieth 
November in said year Comprising a period of Eighty Six Days."] 

Baltimore 6th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
the proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Resolved, That Mr. Jamison and Mr. Burke be and they are hereby 
requested to superintend the purchase and delivery of Lumber for the 
use of the Fortification: and to investigate the quality of that which has 
already been delivered — • 

Whereas in compliance with the requisition of the commanding oiScer, 
the Committee of vigilance & safety have supplied Capt. Babcock with 
labour to be employed in works on Camp-look-out Hill but they are 
apprehensive that Capt. Babcock contemplates Fortification more complete, 
more costly, and requring more time than the present exigency and the 
means of this committee will justify — therefore — 

Resolved, That, the commanding officer be requested to give such 
instruction to the Engineer, as well procure for the western section of 
the city such temporary works as the time allowed us, the use to be made 
of the private property on which they are to be erected and the very limited 
means of this committee will justify — 

Ordered, That Mr. Buchannan & Mr. Payson wait on the Major General 
with a Copy of the foregoing Resolution and confer with him respecting 
the nature of the works of defence contemplated and report immediately — 

Mr. Buchannan from the committee appointed to wait on the Major 
General Reported that they had done so, and that they were informed by 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 219 

the Commanding OfScer that the works intended to be erected would be 
of such a temporary nature and such limited extent as the present exigency 
would admit of and no more — and that the expence would be met by the 
United States — 

The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 7th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Resolved, That so much of the Resolution of this Committee passed on 
the fifth instant as relates to the wages to be paid to the labourers and 
the number thereof, that may be hired to work on the Fortifications erect- 
ing on Camp look out Hill be and the same is hereby repealed and the 
superintendant is hereby authorised to hire such number of labourers and 
upon such terms as he shall think best — 

The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 8th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Resolved, That, the Committee of Accounts be and they are hereby 
authorised to advance to Mr. James Beatty any sum of money that he may 
want for the purpose of fitting-up and repairing Guns and Gun Carri^es, 
not exceeding three thousand dollars — 

The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 9th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Resolved, That a sum not exceeding fifty dollars be paid out of the 
funds of this Committee to the Paymaster of the Rifle Battalion to be 
applied to the payment for music — 

A communication was received from die Committee of Relief, requesting 
that, the contributions in provisions subsaibed to this Committee should 
be transferred to the Committee of Relief to be by them disbursed among 
the poor and needy— which was read and ordered to lie on the table — 

Mr. Frisby from the committee who were appointed to investigate cases 
of individuals who may be accused of being " in the constant habit of 
making use of very improper and intemperate expressions calculated to 
produce disunion, and to defeat the preparations making for the defence 
of our City " — ^made report of sundry improper & intemperate expressions 
of a certain Richard Lewis of Pratt Street, which was read and ordered 
to lie on the table — ■ 

Resolved That the chairman of this Committee be and he is hereby 
authorised to pay the sum of twenty five dollars to Edward Miles for his 



Richard Lewis, Pratt nr. Hanover St. 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



trouble in assisting and bringing home Charles Ernest a Soldier who was 
wounded in the battle of Bladensburg — '^^^ 
The Committee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 10th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Mr. Frisby from the committee who were appointed to investigate cases 
of individuals who may be accused of being in the constant habit of 
niaking use of very intemperate and improper expressions calculated to 
produce disunion and to defeat the preparations making for the defence 
of our City — ^made Report of sundry improper expressions and suspicious 
conduct of a certain Lewis Briers an alien enemy resident here By per- 
mission — whereupon 

Ordered That the chairfnan of this committee be and he is hereby 
authorised and requested to have the said Lewis Briers immediately 
arrested and strictly examined and committed to prison if the chairman 
shall think proper — ■ 

The following address was moved and assented to 

"Those who feel interested in the safety of Baltimore and who have 
omitted to subscribe to the fund which is placed at the disposal of this 
committee, are respectfully reminded that the subscription paper is still 
open at the Mayors office, that the expenses to be defrayed by the com- 
mittee are unavoidably large and are for objects deemed by the Military 
authorities indispensable to our safety — 

""The committee acknowledge with thanks the liberality of those who 
have contributed so freely to this important fund, but they deem it their 
duty to state that, although the subscriptions have been liberal, yet that, 
from estimates it is apprehended they will be inadequate to our wants 
and that, the subscription list comprises only about five hundred names — 
The committee are preparing for publication an alphabetical list of those 
who have aided them with their funds, and that, this may appear as 
speedily and be as respectable as possible they beg their Countrymen to 
be prompt in their subscriptions — ["} 

Ordered That the foregoing address be published immediately — 
Ordered That when this committee do adjourn they shall be adjourned 
to tomorrow morning nine o'clock — 
The Ccttnmittee then adjourned — 

Baltimore 11th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance & Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Resolved— That Messrs. Wm. Wilson, Burke, Camp, Stevens, Schaffer, 

^'■^ Charles Ernest, ship carpenter, was a member of the Fell's Point Rifle Corps. 
He was still abed in June, 1815, when an appeal was made in the newspaper for 
assistance to this wounded veter«a. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



221 



Taylor, Lorman and Waters be and they are hereby appointed to procure 
as speedily as possible thirty or more ships or vessels and to deliver them 
to Commodore Rodgers for the purpose of Having them sunk near Fort 
McHenry in such manner & place as the Commodore shall direct, as 
required by the Major Generals communication of this date — 

Resolved, That Messrs HoUingsworth, Jessup, Warner, Berry and 
Alricks be and they are hereby authorised and required to provide im- 
mediately Tents and Camp equipage and to supply the wants of the Militia 
of the third Brigade and for that purpose to appoint such number of super- 
intendants as they may deem necessary — 

Ordered That the Committee heretofore appointed to provide a Hospital 
be and they are hereby required to supply the wants of the sick and 
wounded at present, until another arrangement can be made and a supply 
can be had in the regular way, of such articles as are said to be wanted in 
the communication of the« Hospital surgeon of this date — 

Ordered That Mr. Kelso and Mr. Frisby be and they are hereby required 
to procure forthwith such number of labourers to work on the Fortifi- 
cations to the eastward of the City as the Engineer can employ — 

The Committee tlien adjourned to 4 O'Clock P. M. of this day — 

Baltimore 4 O'clock P. M. 11th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance & Safety' met pursuant to adjournment. 
The proceedings of the forenoon were read — 

It was stated that a certain man named Maxwell has of late conducted 
himself in a manner so as to excite suspicion that he has or intends to 
have some intercourse with the enemy — ^therefore — 

Ordered, That the chairman of this committee cause the said Maxwell 
to be arrested immediately & impriscaied during the present time of 
alarm — 

Capt. Thomas C. Jenkins '^'^'^ appeared and offered the services of his 
Company of exempts in any way that they could be most usefully 
employed — 

Resolved, That Capt. Jenkins, Capt. Madcenheimer and Capt. Lynch 
be and they are hereby requested to divide their companies into sections 
and to lay off the city into districts so as to suit their convenience and to 
patrole the city and suburbs every night during the present time of alarm — 
And that Mr. StoufFer inform Capt. Lynch and Mr. Bond inform Capt. 
Mackinheimer of the proposed arrangement — 

Resolved, That the committee appointed to superintend the works of 
defence be and they are hereby authorised and required to call on all 
able bodied free men of colour to turn out and labour on the Fortifications 
or other works; and in case of refusal to call on the commanders of the 
several companies of exempts to assist in enforcing such persons to turn 
out and labour — 

The Committee then adjourned to 8 O'Clock tomorrow morning — 

""Thomas C. Jenkins (d. 1834), 47 S. Charles St. i 
"'John Lynch (1763-1848). 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Baltimore 12th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance & Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday afternoon were read — 

Whereas it is represented to this committee that it will contribute very 
materially to the preservation of good order in our City, if the retailing 
of spirituous liquors were prevented after a certain specified hour of the 
night; therefore — 

Resolved, That the Mayor be and he is hereby requested to cause aU 
Taverns except those for the accommodation of Travellers, and all those 
Houses where spirituous liquors are retailed to be closed at 9 O'Clock 
every night and to remain closed during the night — 

Tlie committee then adjourned to three O'Qock P. M. this day 

Baltimore 3 CQock P. M. 12th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance & Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
the proceedings of yesterday afternoon were read — 

Resolved, That Mr. Mortimer^^* be and he is hereby authorised and 
directed to remove the sick Family at Mr. Sterlings place, formerly 
Hustlers Garden, immediately at the expense of this committee 

The committee then adjourned to 8 O'aock of this evening 

Baltimore 8 O'Clock P. M. 12th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance & Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of the afternoon were read — and nothing being com- 
municated or proposed for adoption the committee adjourned to 8 O'Clock 
tomorrow morning — 

Baltimore 13th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 

The committee received a verbal communication from the Major 
General, requesting that, they would have the provisions of our fellow 
citizens in arms cooked every day for them during the actual investment 
of our city by the Enemy, therefore — 

Resolved, "That the several members of this Committee be and they are 
hereby requested to have as much of the provisions for our army cooked 
in his own Family and also by others, every day, as he possibly can during 
the present emergency — 

Th€ committee then adjourned to 3 O'Qock of this day — 

Baltimore 3 O'Qock P. M. 13th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of the forenoon were read — 

The Major General informed the Committee by a verbal communication 

^"Thomas Mortimer (1771-1828), carpenter, York nr. Forest St. 
^"William Sterling, grocer, 11 Baltimore St. 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN BALTIMORE 



223 



that, the troops under General Douglas command were in want of pro- 
visions: therefore — 

Resolved, That Mr. Bond be and he is hereby requested and directed 
to send provisions immediately to the Troths under General Douglas 

command — 

Resolved, That Mr. Payson be and he is hereby authorised and requested 
to purchase for the use of the Army, on the best terms he can, of Mr. 
Robert Barry ^-o all the provisions he has on hand — 

The Committee then adjourned to 8 O'Clock tomorrow morning — 

Baltimore I4th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of yesterday were read — 

Mr. David Willie came before the committee complained that his 
waggon and team had been pressed and prayed that it [be} released — 
The committee took the complaint tinder consideration and promised relief 
as soon as possible 

The committee received a communication through their chairman from 
Major Armstead requesting this committee to furnish him with two 
hundred shovels one hundred Pick axes and five hundred Pieces of Tim- 
ber eight feet long and one foot square, for the purpose of erecting 
bomb proof covered ways for the protection of the soldiery stationed at 
Fort McHenry: therefore — 

Resolved, That Mr. Payson be and he is hereby authorised and requested 
to have one hundred Pick axes and two hundred Siovels collected im- 
mediately and sent to Fort McHenry — 

Resolved, That Mr. Burke and Mr. Taylor be and they are hereby 
authorised and directed to procure five hundred pieces of Timber eight 
feet long and twelve inches square and with all possible dispatch to deliver 
them to Major Armstead at Fort McHenry — • 

The Committee then adjourned to 3 O'Clock P. M. of this day — 

Baltimore 3 O'Clock P. M. I4th September 1814 

The Committee of Vigilance and Safety met pursuant to adjournment — 
The proceedings of the forenoon were read — 

The Committee received a verbal communication from the Major Gen- 
eral requesting, that, two Fire Ships should be prepared and delivered 
to Commodore Rogers forthwith; mat carriages shoxild be sent to bring 
home the wounded: and that a party be sent to bury the Dead — ^therefore — 

Resolved, That Mr. Burke, Mr. Schaffer and Mr. Stevens with Mr. 
Joseph Smith the Harbour Master, be and they are hereby requested 
to provide two Fire Ships; say old sloops or schooners filled with light 
wood, tar and other combustible matter and to deliver them with all 
^ possible di^tch to Commodore Rodgeis — 

""Robert Barry (d. 1838), merchant, 12 Spear's Whaif, dw. Water St. 
Joseph Smith, harbor master, 16 Pitt St. 

4 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZIN-E 



Resolved That, the Members of this Gimmittee will immediately press 
and procure Hacks or other Carriages to bring our wounded men from the 
battle ground — 

Resolved, That Mr. Buchannan, Mr. Payson & Mr. Frisby be appointed 
a committee, whose duty it shall be, first to provide for the immediate 
internment of such of our brave fellow citizens as have fallen in the late 
attack on this city and further to provide for such funeral Honors as 
becomes the duty of the living to pay to the brave and virtuous Dead — 
Ordered, That the foregoing Resolution be published — 
Resolved, That Mr. William Wilson and Mr. Frisby be and they are 
herely directed and requested to wait on Major Armstead and know of 
him whether he would require any other ships to be sunk near Fort 
McHenry — 

Resolved, That the Superintendent theretofore appointed to aid in the 
Fortifications at Camp-look-out be and he is hereby requested to furnish 
the Engineer tomorrow morning with as many labourers and Qrpenters 
as he may require, and to continue the supply of labour and mechanical 
aid until the work is completed — 

The following letter was read agreed to and ordered to be forwarded — 

To the Deputy Commissary of Purchases 

Sir— 

The opportunities which we have had of observing the injury 
to the public service by the absence of the Deputy Commissary of pur- 
chases and the public Storekeeper induces us to assume the privilege of 
recommending that those important officers may not permit their military 
to interfere with their StafE duties, but on the contrary they remain to 
discharge the latter — ' 

The Committee then adjourned to 8 O'Clodk tomorrow morning — 



{To he continued) 



ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMMUNICATION IN THE 
UNITED STATES^ 

By Frank B. Jewett 

When, one hundred years ago today, Samuel F. B. Morse, over 
his experimental electromagnetic telegraph line, sent the now his- 
toric words, " What hath God wrought," not only over the wires 
between Baltimore and Washington but down the channels of 
Time itself, a great new era in the development of human society 
was inaugurated. 

The forces first released and set on the march on that spring 
day a century ago have created entirely new problems requiring 
new solutions and new adaptations in practically every undertak- 
ing, whether in peace or war, in which gregarious man is involved. 

Chronologically, telegraphy was the first great useful applica- 
tion of electricity. For over thirty years it was the only substan- 
tial use. Then in the late 1870's and almost simultaneously, two 
other applications of great potential utility, viz., telephony and 
electric power, which sprang from the same root stock as telegra- 
p"hy, i. e., the Faraday and Henry experiments, took form and 
began to grow apace. We are not here concerned with the his- 
tory of electric power generation, transmission and utilization, but 
we are concerned with Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the 
telephone and the art which developed out of it and which was 
destined in a few short years to become the dominant factor in the 
field of electrical communication. 

Toward the end of the century the two arts of telegraphy and 
telephony began to influence each other under a double urge. 
These were (a) the enormous scientific and technical strides for- 

^ Digest of a paper presented before Maryland Historical Society, May 24, 1944 ; 
and before Sigma Xi Society, University of Chicago, June 1, 1944. 

225 



226 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



ward which the onerous requirements had brought about in tele- 
phony and (b) the obvious by-product values to telegraphy which 
such strides had automatically produced. It was toward the end 
of this era also that the ultimate economic places of the two arts 
in the field of electrical communication began to become clearly 
envisaged. 

An Achievement of Private Enterprise 

The story of the development of electrical communications in 
all its infinite ramifications is one of t^e great sagas of human 
evolution. 

In any panoramic picture of a hundred years of electrical com- 
munication in the United States we will find all sectors of it — 
telegraphy, telephony and radio broadcasting — involved at one 
time or another or continuously, with the same principal factors 
but in varying degrees. In each, however, there has always been, 
from the start, one factor common to all and absent for the most 
part in other countries. It is a factor which has had a powerful 
influence in raising electrical communication in the United States 
to its position of unquestioned preeminence, both technically and 
as a tool of maximum utility in the social structure. 

Here, as practically nowhere else in the world, the develop- 
ment of electrical communication has always been a private enter- 
prise. Invariably regulation by the State has followed a very 
substantial uncontrolled development and has been imposed only 
when usage has become so great that the service was tinged with 
a large public interest which the State could not neglect. Gen- 
erally speaking, the objective of State regulation has been to 
insure adequate service at reasonable non-discriminatory rates 
which, while protecting the public against exploitation, would 
not impose obstacles in the way of that full development and 
use of new tools and methods which are the hallmark of a free 
enterprise system. 

Some Fundamental Concepts 

Properly to appraise any picture of development in the several 
fields which constitute present-day electrical communication and 
of the interrelations between them, it is desirable to keep clearly 
in mind two or three simple distinctions and one common miscon- 
ception. The misconception is found in the designation of radio 



ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION IN THE UNITED STATES 227 



as something distinct from telegraphy and telephony. In a tech- 
nical sense all radio, including broadcasting, is either telephony 
or telegraphy which employs free transmission of electromagnetic 
waves through the ether rather than transmission from transmitter 
to receiver guided by wires. 

The simplest and most generally applicable distinction between 
telegraphy and telephony is that telegraphy is a form of intel- 
ligence transmission by electrical means in which the meaning of 
the message is transmitted to the brain of the ultimate recipient 
through the mechanism of his eyes. In telephony, on the other 
hand, it is transmitted through his ears. In general also telegra- 
phy is a rapid form of intelligence transmission analogous to mail, 
in that it involves one or more intermediary human beings in the 
transmitting chain between sender and recipient. With telephony, 
on the other hand, after the transmission channel is established, 
communication is directly between sender and recipient, without 
intermediaries, as it would be in a vts-d-vis conversation. In 
telegraphy also it is sufficient merely to have the received energy 
in the same sequence of energy packages as is sent out by the 
transmitter. Within limits it is not required that the form of 
packages be the same. 

In telephony, on the other hand, it is imperative that the form 
in which the energy is received at the distant end of the circuit 
deviate but little from its form at the sending end. If this is not 
so, there is distortion which, if substantial, destroys the context 
of the intelligence, no matter how great the received energy. 

It is these basic characteristics of each form of communication 
that explain why those who launched the telephone on its cor- 
porate career had little experience to which they could appeal, and 
why there were to be fundamental diflferences in the business 
practices of the two industries. 

Commercial Growth 

After Morse's demonstration, telegraph lines came into being 
rapidly. Initially they were relatively short and disconnected. 
Gradually, as they increased in number and the art progressed, 
they began to merge into systems of communication, and the 
systems into still larger systems, all directed, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, toward the goal of a universal service. 



228 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Here in the United States this process went on until there were 
but two systems (the Western Union and Postal) which persisted 
essentially competitive for the general message business of the 
nation long after any benefits of competition had ceased to exist. 
It is only within the past few months — a hundred years after the 
Baltimore- Washington demonstration — that final merging into a 
single nationwide system (the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany) has been made and a monopoly of the message business > 
under private ownership and manag^ent, with Government 
supervision, established. 

Parallel with the growth of general message systems, various 
specialized telegraph services grew up and continue to exist. 
Some of these are operational adjuncts to other services, such as 
railroads; others involve furnishing of private message facilities 
to large users having unique needs, such as press associations or 
industries with widely scattered interests. And in recent years a 
special telegraph service available to both large and small users 
has been made possible through the application of certain tele- 
phonic techniques and facilities. This is a switched printing tele- 
graph service — -TWX — which is now employed by a multitude of 
subscribers throughout the nation. 

Telephony, like its older brother telegraphy, also went through 
an evolutionary process. It started in a small way in many sepa- 
rated places and gradually, as the art advanced and the separate 
small units expanded their radii of operation, they met and 
coalesced into larger units, and these later into yet larger ones. 
It was a natural evolution which grew out of the nature of tele- 
phony — not a series of combinations fostered by outside forces. 

While the inherent physical limitations of the earliest telephone 
instruments dictated the initiation of telephony in numerous iso- 
lated places, there were from the beginning two factors which 
destined growth of what is now the integrated Bell System to 
follow a different path of growth from that of telegraphy. 

These two factors were: 

(a) realization that if the goal of uniform satisfactory com- 
mercial service over Wide areas and ultimately over the whole 
nation was ever to be realized, standards of performance, 
particularly of the terminal apparatus, i. e., the transmitter 
and receiver, must be rigidly maintained; further, that they 



ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION IN THE UNITED STATES 229 

musb be maintained through a mechanism which would per- 
mit readily of supplanting old instruments with more efficient 
ones as these latter emerged from progress in the art; and 

(b) the fact that vastly greater sums of money were required to 
establish telephone rather than telegraph systems. This 
latter factor was intensified by the rapidity with which the 
urge for telephone service spread to town and city and later 
to village and countryside. 

Basis of Good Public Service 

Confronted with these two problems, the owners of the funda- 
mental Bell patents had to decide what to do about ownership 
of the instruments and how best to raise the vast sums of money 
required for plant. 

The first was solved by deciding to retain ownership and 
furnish the terminal apparatus to the operating companies on a 
license or royalty basis; the second through the incorporation of 
separate companies, each licensed to operate exclusively in a 
determined area. In most of these companies the parent Bell 
organization had stock ownership and supplied part of the 
capital — the remainder being supplied locally. 

This ownership and maintenance of instruments by the parent 
company was adhered to for many years — long after the basic 
Bell patents had expired. It was the rock on which the whole 
laborious climb toward a universal and uniformly good nation- 
wide service was based. It was not discarded and the instruments 
sold to the operating companies, like all other plant items, until 
the progress and control of the physical development of the art 
and the gradual realization of uniform policies in the several 
operating companies had progressed sufficiently to make clear to 
all the wisdom of centralized guidance. 

For if this vision of nationwide and worldwide telephony were 
not to prove a tantalizing will-o'-the-wisp, far-reaching decisions 
concerning business policy had to be made and then faithfully 
adhered to. For instance, if some day New York was going to 
talk not only to Buffalo and Pittsburgh, but| to Qiicago and 
Omalia and Denver and San Francisco — and, likewise, Chicago 
and Omaha and Denver were to be able to talk to San Fran- 
cisco — a nationwide uniformity of telephone equipment and tele- 



230 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



phone operating practices would be needed. When these broad 
desiderata were translated into working arrangements, they led 
the pioneers to the concept of centralized engineering, to cen- 
tralized research and development, to centralized manufacture, 
and to centralized ownership of patents; in other words, they led 
uniquely to the articulated group of corporate parts which char- 
acterizes the Bell System and which is as well adapted to its task 
today with over 20,000,000 telephones in the caintry as it was 
when there were 20,000. 

Viewed from the broad- base of our present knowledge this 
System may seem so natural, almost so inevitable, as to excite 
little wonder. But when we project ourselves back to the meager 
electrical art of 1885 and remember that at that time this art had 
had little or no chance to express itself in business structures, we 
realize that it was a high order of organizing genius which 
planned so that no false moves and no back-tracking would be 
needed at a later time. 

Reaction of Telephony Upon Telegraphy 

While the problems of telephony are in many respects different 
from those of telegraphy and so tend to diflferent or even diver- 
gent modes of commercial development, there are three dominant 
factors on the physical side whidi pull irresistably to bring the 
two services together. Many of the mechanisms and operating 
methods of telephony are applicable in simpler form in telegra- 
phy; likewise there are transmission values in all telephone cir- 
cuits, automatically produced but not needed in telephony which 
can be used for telegraphy simultaneously. Further, since the 
standards of construction and maintenance which telephony im- 
peratively requires are higher than those needed in telegraphy, 
telegraph circuits obtained by use of tiie telephone plant are 
extremely reliable. 

The Telephone Companies did not attempt to handle a tele- 
graph message business. This would have required a commer- 
cial setup different from that employed in connection with the 
telephone, and would have introduced a violent element of com- 
petition into the field already occupied competitively by the 
telegraph companies. But with only minor increases in central 
ofHce equipment and in personnel, the long distance telephone 



ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION IN THE UNITED STATES 231 

lines could be used for " leased-wire " and other special tele- 
graph purposes without in any way interfering with the avail- 
ability o£ these same lines to telephone subscribers. 

But we are more interested in the benefits accruing to the 
telegraph from telephone research and which have multiplied 
rapidly with the years. 

Subsequent to 1900 the proven value in the field of funda- 
mental science research of what has been loosely termed the 
scientific method of attack was recognized as a powerful imple- 
ment applicable also in the industrial field. From this recognition 
have grown the great industrial research laboratories which, like 
Bell Telephone Laboratories, now so largely determine indus- 
trial progress. This determination results not alone from a more 
rapid fashioning of keystones but likewise, through the rigorous 
controls which their methods require, a lessening of abortive 
attempts to advance an art too rapidly. 

So firmly has the value of the industrial research laboratory in 
the electrical communication field been established during the past 
forty years, that it is inconceivable now that any branch of the 
art can progress efl^ectively without it. 

The dream of a universal telephone service adequate at all 
times was and is today the driving force behind all the research 
and development work that is going on at Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories. This is because the ideal cannot be attained unless the 
physical problems are solved and solved at a price which is low 
enough to permit full use of the service. 

Involved in this ideal are: 

(1) Distance anywhere must not be a barrier. . 

(2) The service must be available anywhere any time on demand. 

(3) It must approach as nearly as possible " no delay " service, 
i.e., establishment of the desired connection while the calling 
party is at the telephone. , 

At the moment, carrier current transmission, by which many 
messages can be transmitted simultaneously over the same pair of 
wires, has taken us a long way toward the ultimate goal. By 
means of the carrier technique any telephone channel could be 
adapted to convey eighteen or more telegraph messages simul- 
taneously. But more than this, the telephone line itself could be 



232 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

pyramided in such a way as to transmit, at first three, and today 
twelve to sixteen separate and independent telephone conversa- 
tions.^ To recapitulate, a pair of wires which in the early days 
of the telephone could carry but a single conversation, can now 
carry sixteen conversations. Or, if all of these telephone channels 
should perchance be wanted for telegraph purposes, then the 
single pair of wires could convey over two hundred telegraph 
messages at one and the same time. 

Quest of a Telephone Repeater 

And before universal service could be attained there was urgent 
need of a telephone repeater or amplifier to restore energy to the 
line periodically. Moreover, it was appreciated that once a suc- 
cessful repeater was at hand, it would be the open sesame to the 
then untried potentialities of radio transmission. 

Then too, the storm breaks of important open wire lines were 
becoming increasingly annoying. The best recalled instance is 
the sleet storm which isolated Washington on the day of Presi- 
dent Taft's inauguration. It led to the ultimatum from Vail to 
his engineers that they must find some way to put long distance ' 
telephone lines underground or in some other way protect them 
from storm damage. The first notable answer to Vail's challenge 
was the opening of the Boston-Washington underground cable in 
1912. It gave commercial transmission but it stretched the use of 
large wires and loading coils to the limit. 

Triumphs based upon the repeater came in rapid succession. 
The first transcontinental telephone line was opened commer- 
cially in January, 1915 and vindicated all the expectations which 
had been associated with the thermionic vacuum tube. In the 
fall of that year the same group of engineers transmitted the 
voice from Washington across the Atlantic to Paris by radio 
telephone. Longer cable circuits than the original Boston-Wash- 
ington group, and employing the vacuum tube amplifier, were 
shortly to appear. Today, such a cable spans the continent. The 
carrier form of transmission, as I have already mentioned, led to 

^ The exact number of carrier channels, both telegraph and telephone, derived in 
practice is primarily determined by economic rather than physical factors. 

° The first actual conversation from New York to San Francisco was six months 
earlier. The story of this transcontinental line is one of the great chapters in the 
history of electrical communication. 



ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION IN THE UNITED STATES 233 



multiplexing, almost beyond the dreams of avarice, until on a 
single coaxial cable employing but two conductors, we transmit 
four hundred eighty telephone messages at the same time. 

It was inevitable that out of this energetically expanding 
research program, knowledge, methods and devices of major 
importance to the telegraph art should arise. As a matter of 
fact, the telegraphic by-products of telephone research were, and 
continue to be, major contributions to the advancement of 
telegraphy. 

I shall not attempt a complete itemization but I do want to 
mention a few instances because they are essential to an under- 
standing of the story from here on. These developments spurred 
on by the growth of the telephone, have affected, or will in the 
future affect, many phases of telegraph practice, such as the ter- 
minal instruments, the lines of transmission, and the philosophy 
underlying the operation of the lines; and, finally, the facilities 
and practices for switching the lines. 

A promising contribution of -telephony to the telegraph art is 
the facility for rapidly switching or interconnecting lines that is 
so necessary to telephone service. The combination of rapid 
switching with the printer telegraph is the basis of the TWX 
service mentioned earlier. 

With this type of service two individuals or offices can inter- 
communicate very quickly, and can if they wish converse together, 
not by the spoken word, but by the written word, each typing out 
his comments as the exchange of ideas progresses, the charge 
being determined by circuit time rather than by the number of 
words sent, as is common for message telegraphy. 

Undoubtedly, one of the most spectacular scientific contribu- 
tions of telephone research in recent years to the telegraph art is 
the permalloy loaded submarine cable. The copper conductor of 
this cable carries a winding of high permeability iron alloy tape 
which imparts a very beneficial magnetic quality to the cable that 
is not possessed by earlier examples of the submarine cable tech- 
nique. This magnetic layer surrounding the copper does for the 
cable about what loading coils have long done for land telephone 
lines. To sum the matter up in very few words, a transatlantic 
permalloy cable has about five times the message capacity of the 
older style non-magnetic cable. Various permalloy loaded cables 
are now in successful use throughout the world. 



234 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



My last illustration of a contribution from the newer to the 
older art will refer to the carrier current developments which, as 
mentioned earlier, permit of rather fantastic multiplexing of vari- 
ous types of circuits. One of the essentials of modern carrier 
practice (and of modern radio transmission also) is the so-called 
electrical v/ave filter, an invention of Dr. George A Campbell, 
now retired, but formerly of the engineering staff of the American 
Telephone and Telegraph Company. The wave filter can take 
many forms, sometimes being built of coils and condensers, and 
at other times of thin slabs of crystals of quartz, of Rochelle 
Salt, or of other substances — ^but however constructed, it permits 
of almost knife-like electrical separation of messages at the re- 
ceiving end of a circuit, almost as though they were printed on a 
strip of paper and then slit apart with a pair of shears. 

The practical value of carrier transmission, and therefore of the 
wave filter, increases with the sharpness of discrimination which 
it permits betv/een messages. As mentioned earlier, these modern 
telephone techniques make it possible, for instance, to transmit as 
many as eighteen telegraph messages together in a circuit which 
will carry a single telephone message. This obviously represents 
an important circuit economy. The practice has been extensively 
employed in telephone plants during recent years as a means both 
of securing telegraph channels for leased wire and TWX circuits 
and, on occasion, for providing facilities to the message telegraph 
companies. 

Post- War Technology 

Any reference to the post-war world would be conspicuously 
incomplete without a word, at least, regarding the technological 
possibilities that seem to be forthcoming. So far as concerns elec- 
trical communication, many of these are encompassed in that now 
portentous word " electronics." This is a field which in certain 
respects has been definitely advanced as a result of war research 
and of the wartime applications of pre-war research. In general 
terms, this work has made much higher frequencies available for 
practical uses. The electrical spectrum has been extended usefully 
upward, thereby adding very materially to the number of ether 
channels that are available for overland communication. The 
shorter radio waves which are transmitted at these frequencies, 
travel only in straight lines, and do not hug the curved surface of 



ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION IN THE UNITED STATES 235 



the earth as do the very long waves, nor are they reflected from 
the upper ionized layers of the earth's atmosphere, as are the 
so-called short v/aves of present-day radio transmission. 

On the other hand, these ultra-high frequencies which will 
shortly become available, can, like a searchlight beam, be readily 
pointed in any desired direction, thus conserving energy and 
minimizing one of the present causes of interference, between 
radio stations, namely, that their generated energy spreads out 
either in all directions, or through a considerable angle. What 
the ultimate value of ultra-high frequency directed radio will 
prove to be is now largely conjectural. Some of its possibilities 
are inherently very attractive, however, and it promises to be 
assiduously explored and tested once the war is over.* 

From what I have already said, you will understand that trans- 
mission channels secured in this way will be of equal use to both 
the telegraph and telephone. Perhaps a more immediate applica- 
tion, however, will be made to television and to facsimile, where 
it can furnish the means for broadcasting visual or graphic pro- 
grams throughout any local area, much as broadcasting does for 
sound. Further development will also disclose the relative places 
of repeatered broad band carrier systems on wire guides and by 
radio in main trunk routes. 

The present prospect is, therefore, that there is still a vast 
futvire for the application of scientific research to the advance- 
ment of electrical communication. The first century has brought 
us a long distance on our way, but the final goal as yet is nowhere 
in sight. 

Considerations of Public Policy 

Turning from the scientific to the public policy aspects of the 
communication art, time does not permit more than mere mention 
of some of the many juridical and semi-juridical problems engen- 
dered by rapid and enormous growth. 

Principal among these have been the methods by which the 
State has sought to supervise equitably a vast public service 
performed by private agencies rather than by the State itself. 

' Since this address was delivered the Federal Communications Commission has 
approved an application of the American Telephone and Telegraph CoffljMiny to 
construct a' directed beam radio system between New York and Boston. 



236 



MARYLAND HISTCmiCAL MAGAZINE 



Long before regulatory bodies representing the public had come 
into existence, several of the state legislatures debated the expedi- 
ency of putting a ceiling on the monthly charge that could be 
made for a telephone. So far as I know, the first and actually 
the only State to act was Indiana, which in 1884 passed a law 
stipulating that the monthly charge for a single telephone could 
not exceed $3.00 and that if any subscriber had two telephones 
the monthly charge for each was to be $2.50. The bill was 
passed over the protestations of the young telephone companies 
then operating in Indiana and, as it soon developed, against the 
interests of the people of Indiana. As the law made impossible 
any operating profit, it demoralized the telephone personnel and 
at once froze tlie sources of money needed for further expansion. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that the State legislature rescinded 
its hasty action within twelve months or so, and their unhappy 
example served as a warning to other legislative bodies. 

Many years later came the first of the quasi-judicial regulatory 
bodies or Commissions whose functions, methods and powers are 
still in an evolutionary state. ^ 

And more recently, broadcasting has grown in an incredibly 
short time to a great industry, a great public interest and a great 
social problem. In every sector it has posed new questions whose 
importance is so great and whose impact so violent as to create 
veritable storms both of inquiry and controversy. 

While application of this form of transmission to the ordinary 
problems of telephony and telegraphy has altered their methods 
and expanded their fields of service, adaptation would not be 
difficult if this were all that science and technology had injected. 

When, however, the full utilization of radio as a unique method 
of broadcasting intelligence is brought in on a huge scale, all the 
older problems have to be reappraised in the light of the new art. 
In addition there is introduced the element of a new competition 
in news and information dissemination. Likewise, the age-old 
question of freedom of speech and of the press arises anew in 
sinister form because necessary control by the State of the 
mechanisms of transmission, if chaos is to be avoided, offers both 
the possibility of censorship and, more, the allegation that it is 
sought to be imposed by the State. 




ISAAC VAN BIBBER 

(January 17, 1810 — September 28, 1847) 
From a portrait made about the time of his tour through Central and 
Southern Maryland. Owned by Mrs. J. Alexis (Harriet 
Van Bibber) Shriver. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844: DIARY 



OF ISAAC VAN BIBBER 

Contributed by J. Alexis Shriver 

[The Van Bibbers came originally from Utrecht, Holland, and 
settled on part of " Bohemia Manor " in Cecil Gsunty, Maryland. 
Some of the descendants of these settlers moved to Baltimore, 
and went into the shipping business at Fells Point, then a rival 
of Baltimore, but now part of it. They were very successful, and 
built a handsome house on Thames Street, the woodwork of which 
v/as secured in recent years by J. Alexis Shriver, and taken to his 
home at Olney," Harford Cbunty, Md. 

After having amassed considerable money at Fells Point, Wash- 
ington Van Bibber (1778-1848) and his wife Lucretia Emory, 
moved to "Avondale," in Carroll County, Md:, a few miles • 
beyond Westminster, and took up the home of Legh Master, who 
had an iron furnace there, and who in a fit of anger pushed one 
of his colored servants into a burning furnace. 

While at Avondale the Van Bibbers, through Isaac Van Bibber, 
just 100 years ago — 1844 — as a result of his collecticms, built the 
Episcopal Church in Westminster. All the Van Bibbers of Avon- 
dale are buried in this church yard, and there they reinterred the 
body of Legh Master, originally buried at " Avondale." 

Dr. W. Chew Van Bibber, one of the brothers, however, moved 
to Baltimore, and was for many years a very successful doctor on 
Franklin St., residing where the present Y. M. C. A. building now 
stands. Miss Alice Van Bibber, one of his daughters, lives on 
Bolton Street, Baltimore. 

Isaac Van Bibber was bom January 27, 1810, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar; spent three years in European travel, 
returned to " Avondale," and died there September 28, 1847. — 
J. A. S.} 

237 



t 



238 * MARYLAND HISTOTICAL MAGAZINE 



[DIARY OF ISAAC VAN BIBBER] i 



On Wednesday the 6th of March I set out upon an expedition, 
concerted between Mr. Buel ^ and myself, and approved of by 
the other members of the family, to collect money to aid in build- 
ing our Episcopal Church in Westminster.^' The morning was a 
delightful one, and in so "far the heavens appeared propitious to 
the enterprise. I was mounted upon Chew's mare, and bound to 
Sykesville, with the intention of proceeding thence to Baltimore 
to obtain credentials from the Bishop." Little occurred previous 
to my arrival at Sykesville worth mentioning, excepting that I 
fell in with two whirlwinds and Jacob Null. I must give the 
former the credit of saying that during the short time they 
favoured me with their society, they exhibited far greater liveli- 
ness and vivacity than the latter. Indeed, I am compelled to add 
that Mr. Null would have been much more appropriately desig- 
nated if, instead of one name, he had followed the example of 
Lord Brougham and Vaux, and adopted the highly significant 
title of Null and Void. 

As Mr. Garratt * was not at home upon my arrival in Sykesville, 
and most of the doors appeared to be locked, I enjoyed an oppor- 
tunity not to be neglected of ascertaining by repeated measure- 
ment the number of paces in the hall and portico of the hotel. At 
length Mrs. Garratt appeared, and as I was ravenously hungry, I 
requested dinner immediately. She curtesied very politely, and 
■requested to know whether I would have fish or beef stake. I was 
about to say both, and had some faint thoughts of suggesting the 
addition of a veal cutlet, but reflecting that such a reply would 

^ The valued services of Miss Lucy Leigh Bowie in preparing the notes are grate- 
fully acknowledged. Thanks are also due Miss Anne Armour Perkins for information 
relating to Carroll County families and to Mrs. Douglas Thomas for help with those 
of Prince George's. — Editor. 

"Rev. David Hillhouse Buell, native of New York, who was at this time rector 
of Holy Trinity and Ascension Cliurches, Carroll County, Md. 

^° Ascension Church, Westminster, Rev. Richard M. Lundberg, rector, celebrated 
its centenary in the spring of the present year and on August 27, last, unveiled a 
plaque in grateful remembrance of the efforts of Mr. and Mrs. Washington Van 
Bibber and two sons, Isaac and Thomas, in serving the Qiufch. 

' Rt. Rev. William RoUinson Whittitigham, a native of New York, Bishop of 
Maryland, 1840-1879. 

' Garratt and many others mentioned have proved too difficult for ready iden- 
tification. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



239 



hardly have been delicate under the circumstances, and moreover 
that I was upon an errand of the Church, and that this was the 
season of Lent, I therefore uttered with sorrowful forbearance — 
fish. Shortly after, Mr. Garratt made his appearance, and in 
answer to my salutation of " how he did? " very obligingly gave 
me an account of all his complaints for the last six months, and 
then by an easy and perfectly natural transition passed over to a 
very minute detail of the purchase, wearing out, and final aban- 
donment of a most remarkable overcoat. While he was in the 
midst of this intensely interesting narration, a black woman 
entered and said something to him in a low tone of voice, but he 
proceeded without paying the slightest attention to her communi- 
cation. It occurred to me that dinner was announced, and I felt 
very sorry to be compelled to interrupt the story in one of the 
most thrilling passages, to inquire whether it were not so. On 
receiving a reply in the affirmative, I proceeded immediately in 
the direction of the dining room, but Garratt followed close be- 
hind and during the greater part of the meal regaled me with the 
account of his adventurous overcoat. After dinner, I took a short 
nap; got into the cars about 4 o'clock; arrived in Baltimore with- 
out incident or accident; took tea at Whitman's,'^ and having such 
a headache as to prevent my visiting anywhere, attended one of 
Professor Silliman's lectures upon Geology.* This was an admir- 
able discourse beautifully delivered. From the lecture I went to 
Aunt Emory's, where I met Wm. Lindenberger and after waiting 
until about 11 o'clock, admitted Chew and went to bed in his 
room. N. B. saw Miss Courtney. 

Thursday, March 7th. After breakfasting and making a few 
purchases, Chew and I called on the Bishop, who received us 
kindly, and after reading Mr. Buel's letter, promised to give 
me a circular recommending my undertaking to the liberal and 
charitable of his diocese. He and Mr. Hewitt ' appeared quite 
well. After leaving the Bishop's, Chew and I directed our steps 
towards the Medical College; * although Chew was obliged to 
stop on the way and put up a box of pills. This detained us so 

° Presumably William Whitman's Eagle Hotel, Pratt St. east of Light. 
' Benjamin Silliman, professor of chemistry and natural history at Yale. 
' Rev. Nathaniel Augustus Hewitt, native of Connecticut, in 1844 rector of St. 
John's Church, Huntington (Waverly), Baltimore. , 
' Of the University of Maryland. 



5 



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MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



long that we found considerable difficulty in getting into the 
crowded amphitheatre where the Commencement took place. De- 
grees were given to more than 30 young men. The circular hall 
was completely crowded with ladies, and such were the noise and 
confusion that scarcely anything could be heard. There were two 
or three pretty women to be seen, but I could discover very few 
traces of intelligence in the countenances of the graduates. The 
music was not bad. After the commencement I went to dine with 
Frederick Brune, who met me on the street and gave me an invita- 
tion; in the afternoon I went to see John Brune ' at the Q)unting 
House; and at night attended a lecture, and afterwards a supper 
at Dr. Dunbar's.^" The Doctor delivered a valedictory to four of 
his students, who had graduated at the commencement, present- 
ing them at the same time with a certificate of proficiency, and 
giving them a world of good and wholesome advice, interspersed 
with occasional touches of the pathetic and the facetious. The 
supper was cold but the welcome warm. I made out my meal 
principally from pound cake and pickled oysters. Such was the 
profusion of beef upon the table that I was inclined to think that 
the Doctor had been sacrificing a hecatomb to y^sculapius. Also, 
it was a first rate dish — -was chicken salad. After supper I re- 
turned to Aunt Emory's; slept like a top; was waked at 6 o'clock 
the following morning, March 8, and perceiving that it was a 
rainy day, determined to remain until a later hour, or, if the bad 
weather continued, all day. After breakfast, I took a solemn 
leave of my Aunts and cousins, and determined, even if I re- 
mained in town that day, not to show myself among them again; 
I dislike too many leave-takings. Having bought myself an 
umbrella, I walked about the streets or lounged in book-stores, 
until a suitable dinner hour, when I repaired to Robinson's oyster 
house and took a simple but exquisite repast — the fact is, I'm a 
great oyster-man. After eating, I continued to sit in the little 
apartment, reading, writing and cyphering for an hour or two, 

'Frederick W. Brune (1813-1878) and John C. Brune (1814-1864) were sons 
of Frederick W. Brune, Sr., who came to Baltimore from Bremen in 1799. The 
younger Frederick was one of the founders in 1844 of the Maryland Historical 
Society. 

"Dr. John R. W. Dunbar (1805-1871). removed to Baltimore from Winchester, 
Va., in 1830. 

Thomas Robinson's ale and oyster house, aaording to the city directory for 
1844, was at 6 Light St. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



241 



when, at last I heard a great noise in front of the house, and on 
inquiry found it to proceed from a crowd of people assembled 
about a live leopard, which, getting loose from its keeper, who 
was parading it about the streets, had inflicted a severe injury 
upon a child which happened to be within its reach. Leaving my 
coat and books upon the table, I went into the common sitting 
room, where, after I had satisfied my curiosity in regard to the 
leopard, I seated myself beside the stove and continued to read. 
Shortly afterwards I put on my great coat and went into the street. 
Wishing to purchase one or two articles, I went into a shop, and 
having made a selection, I put my hand in my pocket in search of 
my pocket-book. Not being able to lind it, after a long search, I 
went back to the Oyster House, where after hunting in vain for 
some time, I had the landlord and all the servants assembled and 
stated to them my loss. They all, of course, looked very blank. 
At last, however, I discovered the object of my search in a pocket 
I had not previously examined; and then no doubt looked exceed- 
ingly blank in my turn. I should have mentioned that yesterday 
evening I saw Nannie and found her looking much better than 
when I had last seen her during the winter. At night I slept at 
Dix & Foggs.^^ Fog was very attentive to me and insisted upon 
my drinking a glass of wine with him. I found it, for so damp a 
night, an excellent antifogmatic. Dix I didn't see. I was aroused 
at an early hour of the morning. 

March 9, 1844, and had my head well combed and my clothes 
well brushed previous to starting from the hotel. Breakfast, if 
such it may be called, I took at my friend Whitman's, and insisted 
upon paying for it. I mention this circumstance, because that 
valuable friend had refused to receive payment for my occupying 
a room during 24 hours after my first arrival in town. Imme- 
diately after breakfast I entered the cars, and read and shook and 
grunted until I arrived at Sykesville. Here I met with Mr. War- 
field,^' who very pressingly invited me to come to see him. At 
the same time I met Mr. Sykes,^* who gave me permission to put 
his name down on my subscription list for 10 dollars. Leaving 

Dix and Fogg kept the Fountain Inn, on Light Street, site of the present 
Southern Hotel. 

" George Frazer Warfield, who built " Groveland " at Sykesville. Warfield, 
Founders of Anne Arundel and Howard Counties, p. 170. This and other local 
sources have been freely drawn upon in these notes. 

^' Probably the mill-owner Jam« Sykes, for whom the town was named. . 



242 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Sykesville I rode immediately to Mr. Patterson's, whom I found 
at some distance from his house, sitting on a log reading a news- 
paper/° I asked him to read what I had written up on the first 
page of my subscription book, but instead of doing so, he asked 
me what it was all about. I told him it related to the building of 
an Episcopal Church in Westminster, at which he shook his head, 
saying that he would have nothing more to do with the building 
of Churches, as he looked upon them as causes of contention in 
the neighborhood. I then hazarded a few words of expostulation, 
and told him that I would most gratefully receive anything that 
was offered. To this he made no reply, pretending to be deeply 
engrossed with an exquisite representation of some steam cars at 
the head of one of the columns of the newspaper. Finding his 
thoughts in such a train, I bid him good morning, and receiving a 
very polite salutation in reply, rode away. Thus vanished my 
golden dream of a handsome donation from the wealthy Mr. 
Patterson. 

From this place I rode direct to Mr. Ireland's about three miles 
distant.^' To my application that gentleman professed himself a 
Methodist and said that if it were necessary he would give $500.00 
to insure the building of such a church in his neighbourhood. Mr. 
Ireland was seated with his hat on, at a little side table eating a 
private meal. He told me that he was so afflicted with rheumatism 
in the head that he was obliged to keep that precious knob care- 
fully bandaged up, and that to secure the bandage in its place he 
was obliged constantly to wear his hat. The fact is he appeared 
nervous and hypocondriac to the last degree. On rising to take 
leave he insisted upon my remaining to dinner, which, without 
much entreaty, I consented to do. Shortly after, I was introduced 
to a Mr. Renwick, a Methodist preacher, and son-in-law to Mr. 
Ireland. Mrs. Ireland and two of her daughters appeared at the 
dinner table, which was very abundantly supplied with excellent 
provisions. After dinner, Renwick and I got into a theological 
argument upon the subject of the apostolical succession; during 
the course of which Mr. Ireland, notwithstanding his Methodism, 

^" George Patterson, of " Springfield," Carroll County, brother of Betsy Patterson 
who married Jerome Bonaparte. His property is now the Springfield State Hospital. 

*° Edward Ireland, Sr. (1795-1871), who married Deborah Moale. He was own 
brother to Jesse HoUingsworth (see below) but took the name of his maternal 
grandfather for a consideration. Information from Miss Ann Armour Perkins. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 243 

seemed inclined to advocate my side of the question. At length, 
I mounted my horse and went over to Mr. Jesse HoUingsworth's,''' 
who lives in sight, about quarter of a mile distant. Jesse was not 
at home when I arrived, but being sent for he soon made his 
appearance, and gave me a warm and hospitable reception. He 
has residing with him as governess a young lady named Miss 
Badger, somewhat of the apple dumpling order of beauty, fat and 
healthy in the extreme. This young lady, perhaps owing to her 
extreme rotundity, has revolved completely round in her religious 
notions, and from a Presbyterian has become a complete high- 
churchwoman. She insists, I believe, upon being rebaptized pre- 
vious to being confirmed. I found Mrs. Hollingsworth very kind, 
and indeed spent a very agreeable evening with the family. 

March 10 Sunday. Shortly after breakfast this morning I rode 
to Mr. Colhoon's accompanied by Mrs. Hollingsworth. I found 
Mr. Colhoon deeply engrossed by church matters, going two or 
three degrees higher than ever I expect to ascend. This is 
accounted for by the fact that Mr. Colhoon was originally a 
Presbyterian. He appeared to be well informed upon church his- 
tory and upon all matters relating to the question which is at 
present agitating church people. With Mrs. Colhoon I was very 
much pleased. She appears to be a highly intelligent and sensible 
woman, — high church in her notions, but withal liberal and 
charitable. During the three or four hours I remained at this 
place our conversation was entirely upon church matters. It was 
maintained however with great animation and interspersed with 
numerous anecdotes. About 4 o'clock I again set out, and shortly 
before sunset arrived at Mr. Warfield's. Here, I received a warm 
welcome, and also three names to my subscription list. Miss 
Susanna and Wm. Henry ^' sang and chanted; and the old man 
dwelt upon the reminiscences of by-gone times until he was 
thrown into a terrible panic, by a little negro boy getting under a 
side table, and by his noises inducing a belief that a ferocious 
bandit, or, at least, a sanguinary housebreaker, was in the room. 

"Jesse Hollingsworth (1800-1872) of "Weston," Carroll County, whose wife 
was Sophia Baker, was a son of Judge Zebulon Hollingsworth. 

Mr, Colhoon was from Philadelphia and married Miss Ireland of Upton." 
Susanna and William Henry Warfield were the children of George Frazer 
Warfield of " Groveland." Susanna was an author and musician. William Henry 
Warfield, a graduate of West Point, left " Groveland " to the Episcopal Church 
and it is now known as " Warfield College." 



244 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



With the exception o£ this little romantic incident the time flowed 
smoothly away until the hour of bed, when I sank into a sweet 
sleep under a silken coverlid. 

March 11, 1844, Monday. At the hour of [not given} I started 
upon my feet, and indulged in the ratity of a clean shirt. Then, 
after breakfasting, I made an early start intending to visit Mr. 
Harrison's ^° and several of his parishioners during the day, but 
various causes prevented my accomplishing the latter part of my 
plan. In the first place, I lost myself two or three times, upon the 
road leading from Sykesville to the Frederick Turnpike; then, I 
was obliged to ride back a considerable distance for my umbrella, 
which, upon stopping, I had deposited very carefully beside a tree; 
and, finally, I thought myself bound to stop at a tavern to write a 
letter home — ^not having written since I left there, and finding a 
great difficulty in writing at private houses. At the tavern I also 
took a bite and attended to my mare. I reached Mr. Harrison's 
about two miles distant, about 4 o'clock, and found him in the 
act of driving out upon some business at Ellicott's Mills. He 
insisted upon my alighting and remaining with him all night. 
During the time of his absence, I enjoyed the company of Mrs. 
Harrison, her sister Miss Thompson and Mrs. Hammond; good 
company, though somewhat stiff. Harrison himself is perhaps a 
most excellent man — certainly he is exceedingly kind and hos- 
spitable — but from the cast of his countenance, one is led to infer 
that he is in a constant state of the most ferocious passion. This 
is attributable, doubtless, to dyspepsia and great emaciation. I 
believe, however, that his character is remarkably mild and amia- 
ble — ^would to heaven he looked it a little better! Mrs. Hammond 
soon took her leave, and the rest of the evening was spent by 
Mr. Harrison and myself in an agreeable literary chit-chat. He 
seemed to be a hard student and has a considerable knowledge of 
the German, of which he got me to translate for him several diffi- 
cult passages. After writing a page or two in my journal, I 
retired about 11 o'clock, and rose about half after 6 the next 
morning. 

March 12, Tuesday, when, immediately after breakfast, I re- 
paired to Ellicott's Mills about 2 miles distant. The first person 

Rev. Hugh T. Harrison, native of Talbot County, was in 1844 rector of St. 
John's Church, Howard County. He was born in 1800 and died in 1862. His wife 
was Elizabeth Catharine Thompson (1813-1892). 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



245 



I met was Meade Addison come to attend court at this place. 
Addison was exceedingly kind and friendly to me; subscribed 
$10.00 to our church, and introduced me to every one who was at 
all likely to contribute. I attended court during the whole day, 
and picked up from different individuals about 30 dollars. Every- 
body was very polite even when they refused to contribute, which 
was the case with Hammond and Hayden.^^ In the evening Addi- 
son and I visited Mrs. Phelps,^^ the preceptress of the female 
academy, who, after a long and prosy palaver, came to the con- 
clusion that she could give me nothing. She was, however, pro- 
fuse in her politeness, and invited us to take tea with herself and 
girls, when, no doubt she would have given us the taste as well 
as the smell of bread and butter. I am sorry that we felt con- 
strained to decline so Byronic a gratification. It rained nearly all 
day to-day, so that I was obliged to confine myself pretty closely 
to the house, i. e., the Court house. A case was tried in which my 
friend Brent acquitted himself quite handsomely. He spoke 
for about an hour with great fluency and (considering the unin- 
teresting nature of the subject) , quite well. Lawyer Tyson's ^° 
speech was in the highest degree amusing — owing principally to 
his grotesque gesticulations. The fact is, he made the most elo- 
quent mouths I have ever seen displayed before an intelligent 
jury. They greatly contributed, I have no doubt, in influencing 
the verdict. 

March 13, Wednesday. It rained until about 10 o'clock, and 
afterwards cleared up very beautifully. I lingered, however, in 
the hope of obtaining a few more contributions, but with the 
exception of Mr. Alexander,^" of Annapolis, who gave me $10.00, 

William Meade Addison was the youngest son of Rev. Walter Dulany Addison. 
The former was U. S. District Attorney for Maryland under three administrations. 
Addison, A Hundred Years Ago, Life and Times of the Rev. Walter Dulany Addi- 
son, p. 189. 

Edwin Parsons Hayden, son of Dr. Horace H. Hayden of Baltimore. He 
practised law at Ellicott's Mills, where he built the stone residence, " Oak Lawn," 
near the Court House. 

"Almirs Hart Lincoln Phelps (1793-1884) the distinguished educator and 
author, principal of Patapsco Female Institute, Ellicott City, from 1841 to 1856. 
She was the mother of the late Judge Charles E. Phelps of Baltimore. 

"Probably Robert James Brent (1811-1872) member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1851 and attorney general 1851-1852. 

^° Judge John S. Tyson, who married Rachel, daughter of John Snowden of 
" Birmingham." He lived at "' Mount Ida " on the hill at Ellicott City. 

''"Doubtless this was Thomas Harwood Alexander (1801-1871) a distinguished 
lawyer, who was an associate of Judge Theodoric Bland. He removed about 1852 
to Baltimore. 



246 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

I was unsuccessful. I applied to two Messrs. Dorsey, brothers 
of the Judge," and to Mr. Ben Harrison,''* but they pleaded the 
necessity of giving all they had to spare to relieve their own parish 
from a debt of 1200 dollars, for the erection of the parsonage- 
house. In the evening, I took a long stroll with Brent along the 
banks of the Patapsco. During our ramble we talked over all 
our reminiscences and adventures in Winchester, Va., where we 
had both studied law together. He gave me a particular account 
of his courtship of a certain young lady, his refusal, his subse- 
quent acceptance, and the final dissolution of partnership, by 
mutual consent; to all which matters I was privy at the time, but 
many of which I had since forgotten. Brent is a great talker and 
quite agreeable. At night Addison and I went to get some oysters, 
which, had they only been half rotten, we might have eaten for 
politeness sake; but as they went rather beyond that delicate state, 
we were so fastidious as not to relish them. 

March 14, Thursday. About 9 o'clock I again started upon my 
way, having picked up about $40.00 at Ellicotts Mills. I rode 
along the romantic banks of the Patapsco as far as Elkridge Land- 
ing, about 8 miles, where I knocked at the door of Dr. Worth- 
ington's house, to inquire for the Episcopal clergyman residing 
there. No one coming to the door after I had knocked repeatedly, 
I rode on two miles further, when finding it 12 o'clock, I stopped 
at a tavern to have my horse fed, and to take a little snack on my 
own account. Here I was told that the road to Annapolis was 
very difficult to find, but that I could obtain conveyance for myself 
and horse upon the railroad, about 10 fniles distant. Thither I 
repaired, after a slight meal of eggs and crackers. When arrived 
at the relay house, I was told that there was no car suitable for 
transporting horses, but that I might send a boy from Annapolis 
and have my mare ridden down by the country road. This plan 
being the only one left me, I set out in the car for Annapolis, and 
reached it though distant twenty miles, in less than an hour. The 
railroad appears to be very well constructed, but passes through 
one of the dreariest and most poverty stricken countries I ever 

*' Brothers of Chief Justice Thomas Beale Dors«y were Caleb, Edward of Ken- 
tucky, Col. Charles Samuel Worthington Dorsey, and John Worthington Dorsey, Jr. 

Benjamin Harrison of Baltimore married Ann Caroline, daughter of Benjamin 
Harwood. 

" Dr. Hattersly P. Worthington, father of the late George Worthington, archi- 
tect of Baltimore. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



247 



saw. The appearance of an abundance of round pebbles, in the 
soil, between this and Elkridge, shows that this part of the coun- 
try was originally under water. Whether it emerged gradually 
from the sea, by the same process as that which, at the present 
day, elevates the coast of Sweden, or whether it was suddenly 
thrown up by some volcanic eruption, we have no means of ascer- 
taining. I was induced to think of the subject at all from the 
wonderful effects of subterranean fires and other agencies spoken 
of by Professor Silliman in his lectures. I arrived in Annapolis 
about 6 o'clock and put up at Swan & Iglehart's, to all appear- 
ances the best hotel in the State, out of Baltimore."" The rooms 
and staircases are all carpeted, the servants attentive and polite, 
and everything conducted more after the English than the Ameri- 
can model. Feeling somewhat fatigued, I retired rather earlier 
than usual. 

March 15, Friday. Immediately after breakfast, I took a long 
walk without my great coat, without being aware, before I left 
the house, how cold it had become. This, I imagine, gave me a 
bad cold, which made its appearance towards evening. It com- 
menced raining about 10 o'clock and continued during the re- 
mainder of the day. At first, I called upon Mr. Winslow,'^ who 
insisted upon subscribing $5.00, although I told him I was not 
begging from the clergy. He told me that the best way of induc- 
ing his parishioners to subscribe was to set them the example; and 
recollecting Chaucer's description of the good curate, I yielded 
to his generous motive. I then called upon Mrs. Harwood,'^ and 
afterwards, her daughter, Mrs. Tilten, both of whom declared 
themselves unable to give me any assistance. They received me, 
however, with politeness, and Mrs. Tilten was very pressing for 
me to dine with her. I next called in succession upon Mr. Cor- 
nelius McLane, who could give me nothing, upon Mr. Thomas 
Franklin, who also declined contributing, upon Dr. Humpfries 
of St. John's College, who sent me a dollar by the servant, and 

" This was the City Hotel, formerly Mann's Hotel, where Washington and other 
notables had put up in earlier days. It stood at Tiuke of Gloucester sad Conduit 
Streets. \ 

Rev. Gordon Windslow, D. D., rector of St. Ann's. He was a native of 
England. 

Mrs. Henry Hall Harwood was a daughter of Col. Edward Lloyd of Wye 
House," Talbot County. Her daughter Josephine married Edward G. Tilton, U.S.N. 

Rev. Hector Humphreys, D. D., native of Connecticut, became President of St. 
John's College in 1831 and died in office in 1857. 



248 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Upon Mr. A. Randall/* who first declined, but was afterwards 
induced to give me $5.00. It rained so hard during the remainder 
of the day, and I felt so badly, in consequence of my cold, that I 
kept to my room, where I occupied myself in reading and writ- 
ing. With the exception of Mrs. Harwood and Mrs. Tilten, I 
am a total stranger in the place — and strangers appear to be so 
common here that very little notice is taken of them. Even the 
landlord and bar-keeper, by their reserved and business-like man- 
ners, seem to look upon strangers as not exactly '^hat they are 
cracked up to be. 

Saturday, March 16. My cold being somewhat increased, and 
the rain continuing to fall even faster than it did yesterday I 
thought it more prudent to keep the house during the forenoon, 
which in one respect was a great pity, as the barber in brushing 
my hair, had made me look considerably sprucer than usual. My 
mind was greatly agitated to know in what part of my book to 
insert Dr. Humphrie's dollar. If I put it down in my list which 
contained no sum less than |5.00, it would considerably preju- 
dice my future prospects — not to insert it at all, in the proper 
place, would perhaps be somewhat insulting to the Revd and 
learned President. After long and painful deliberation, I came 
to the conclusion to leave a line for the Dr., but not to fill it up 
until the $5.00 charm was dissolved, or, if that continued un- 
broken until the end of my journey, not to insert it until I reached 
home. I may remark, however, in passing, that I did not call 
upon the Doctor with any intention of begging, but having pinned 
my visiting card upon the Bishop's letter, I generally sent it in to 
make known my business at the same time that I announce my 
name; my object in calling was to see the college. In the evening 
I took a walk, but felt so badly and so little in the humour for 
begging that I dispensed with that highly agreeable occupation. 
After reading and writing until quite late, I retired. 

Sunday, March 17, St. Patrick's Day. Although travelling on 
horseback is not exactly hke travelling in a banbox, still a man 
may be neat, if he's only clean, and I feel proud to say that I 
never had a nicer feel about me than when I came out of the 
barbef's hands this morning. To be sure I was obliged to snuffle 

Hon. Alexander Randall, member of Congress, Attorney General of Maryland, 
1864; president, Farmers National Bank, Annjtpolis. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



249 



a good deal now and then, but that only afforded me an oppor- 
tunity of displaying my snow white silk handkerchief, as upon 
tiptoe, like a french dancing master, I tript up to the venerable 
looking brick church at the head of the street. The building is 
immensely large in proportion to the ordinary size of the congre- 
gation; although it may do very well during the session of the 
Legislature. Mr. Winslow has an excellent voice, read the ser- 
vice very effectively, and preached a very sensible sermon. He 
appears to be an excellent man. In the afternoon I took a stroll 
over the whole town, seeing the garrison,^^ the Governor's house, 
the house which formerly belonged to Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, where at one end of the garden are to be seen what is very 
rare in this country, some interesting relics of antiquity in part 
of a ruinous building, in which a handsome marble doorway and 
the remains of a marble balustrade, seem almost tumbling into 
the water. There are a great many fine old houses in the town; 
some of them, no doubt, built during the colonial government. 
They have an English and aristocratic air about them, such as is 
seldom seen in our more modern structures. " I like them much." 
On my return from walking, while waiting in my room for the 
supper bell, the servant entered and announced Dr. Humphfries. 
I flew down to welcome my dollar friend, and brought him imme- 
diately to my room. It seems he had some how or other, con- 
ceived that I must be a clergyman, and I was very sorry that I felt 
myself conscientiously bound to undeceive him. In the account 
he gave me of his misconception, he had me so intimately blended 
up with Mr. Buel and Dr. Risteau," that, at the conclusion of it, I 
felt hardly certain of my own personal identity. Feeling, how- 
ever, pretty much as I always did, and not at all like either of 
those gentlemen, I concluded the mistake lay upon the side of the 
Rev. and learned President, and then proceeded to explain to him 
the precise nature of my undertaking. To this he listened with 
commendable patience. At last I produced my book, and apolo- 
gized to the Dr. for my omission to insert his name, honestly 
avowing that I did not wish to dissolve the $5.00 enchantment, 
which seemed to have taken possession of my list, whereat the 
Dr. very generously handed me 4 dollars more, and then inscribed 

'° Fort Severn which occupied a part of the present grounds of the Naval 

Academy. 

" This appears to have been Dr. Thomas C. Risteau (d. 1866) <rf Baltimore Co. 



250 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

his name before the necromantic figure. The bell now rang for 
tea, to which I hospitably invited my guest; but the learned Presi- 
dent had supped; he said he had taken coffee, but in saying so 
he made such a rye [sic} face, that I was compelled to suspect 
the genuineness of the article, having myself, at one time, been 
accustomed to college fare. In return, the Dr. very politely 
invited me to visit him tomorrow, a little after 9 o'clock, when he 
promised to take me over the institution. With this hopeful 
prospect before me, I shall retire to bed with a light and happy 
heart. 

Monday; March 18. I arose this morning with a determination 
to proceed with energy; and accordingly, immediately after break- 
fasting and barberizing, I dashed out, list in hand, to make an 
attack upon the social circles of Annapolis. The first lady upon 
whom I determined to make an impression was Miss Brice,^^ with- 
out knowing what sort of a lady I should meet, whether old or 
young, handsome or homely. It was sufficient for my purpose to 
know that she was thought wealthy, and that she was the pos- 
sessor of an immensely large house, which only required a little 
paint for to be converted into a sumptious palace. In my own 
mind, I determined to furnish the paint at my own expense, as 
well as any little carpenters work that might need repair; and it 
was in the full glow of such generous schemes that I was ushered 
into the parlour, and requested to wait until Miss Brice made her 
appearance. This she did in about three quarters of an hour, 
during which, there being no fire in the room, I was enabled to 
contemplate with perfect coolness the panelled walls, and admire 
the antique fashion of the furniture. With this last the lady's 
appearance corresponded to a nicety. If society were geologically 
stratified, she might be considered as belonging to the primitive 
formation, with, however, a few fossiliferous remains of a nearly 
extinct species of calcareous shells in the upper region. Slender, 
bland and seductive, she appeared bearing the Bishop's letter and 
a five dollar note clasped tightly upon her bosom, a spot which, 
under such circumstances, even "' Jews might kiss and infidels 
adore." Being neither one nor the other, I contented myself 
with keeping a tight eye upon the ragged but temptkig prize; 



°' Mistress of the famous Brice House, a floor plan and front elevation of which 
appear on the fly-leaves of the book in which Van Bibber kept his diary. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



251 



while in tones, which for their blended rapidity and sweetness, 
deserve, perhaps, to be called quick-silvery, she apologized for not 
being able to bestow more for so noble a purpose. Having seen 
this much of Miss Brice, I felt a longing aid irresistible inclina- 
tion to see Miss Chase. The former lady pointed out her resi- 
dence to me from her back windows, and thither I immediately 
repaired, in a condition whidi resembled more than anything else, 
the appearance of an extinct volcano. Before I reached the large 
and venerable house, however, I was all ablaze, and again car- 
ried an imaginary paint pot in my hand and an imaginary car- 
penter's rule in my pocket. Ample time was allowed for my 
fervor to cool in a room destitute alike of volcanic, solar, or arti- 
ficial heat, until at length the elder Miss Hester Chase swam 
into the apartment. At first sight, it appeared as if one of the old 
portraits hanging around had gently sunk into the wall, made a 
slight change of costume, silently reappeared, and gracefully 
descended from the frame. She was a lady who seemed to blend 
in the happiest manner the most contradictory elements; she was 
dignified, though short; intellectual, though fat; motherly, al- 
though a maiden. She, too, even in the strictest keeping with her 
furniture, the low but stately chairs, the pursy but elastic'sofa. 
In her fair hand she bore a coin of virgin gold— the quarter of 
an eagle. Alas! my game of fives was at an end. I had striven 
long to keep the ball in motion, but Miss Chase's authoritative 
name as the donor of two dollars and fifty cents was indelibly 
emblazoned upon my book. You might have seen the gold enter 
into my soul, as witfi smiling lips but quivering chin, I thanked 
the fair contributor and bowed myself away. I entered next the 
enclosure of the garrison, a beautiful place, most beautifully kept. 
Here, I presented my papers to Major Gardiner, the Commandant, 
a fine looking man, of pleasing manners, who appeared very 
sorry that he could not afford to give me anything. As a justifica- 
tion he even went so far as to commence revealing some causes of 
pecuniary embarrassment, whidi I was so considerate as to inter- 
rupt. He appears to be a very amiable man, and is, no doubt, 
like his namesake, of historical memory (the Colonel), a brave 
but generous, a firm but tender soldier. From the garrison I 

" Hester Ann Chase (1791-1875), daughter of the Hon. JeremiA Townley Chase 
and his wife Hester, daughter of Thomas and Agnes Baldwin. 



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directed my steps to the opposite quarter of the city, and there 
made my first application to a Mrs. Captain Voorhees, whose 
appearance and environment suggested to my mind the idea of 
Flora in deshabille. #Her windows were decorated with the most 
lovely flowers, her person with the most unlovely robes. It was 
evidently her husband who followed the water — not she. It was 
also evident that she expended all the soft soap she had to dis- 
pose of in her conversation — the hand article she kept treasured 
in her bosom. She gave me her kindest wishes in words of 
honey and of treacle, but could not bear to part with so congenial 
a companion as filthy lucre. From Mrs. Voorhees I proceeded to 
the house of Mrs. Ray, whom I found sitting with dishevelled 
locks, in a most interesting and disconsolate state of widowhood. 
Although no longer young, she was still handsome, and finding 
that the maiden ladies whom I had visited were no longer to be 
thought of, I began to turn my attention to widows. Having 
presented my letter, I watched her until she had finished it; and 
then commenced a long and eloquent address, to which she ap- 
peared to listen with the most intense attention; smiling at times 
as though she were equally pleased with the matter and manner 
• of my discourse. With rising hope, my heart began to expand. 
I drew my chair closer, and infused into my tones a tenderness 
sufficient to dissolve a glacier. The answer came at last — and 
with it came a death blow to my hopes. The lady was evidently 
£deaf j — she hadn't heard a word I uttered. And what was still 
worse — notwithstanding the lady failed to discover a particle of 
humour, she kept me in a roar during the whole time I was con- 
versing with her. I roared, however, to some purpose, for the 
lady responded to my call to the tune of five dollars. The next 
gentleman I visited was Col. Manadier,*' an octogenarian gentle- 
man of the old school, very courtly in his manners, and, after the 
manner of old men, highly loquacious in his conversation. He 
seems to have been a first rate man in his day and generation. He 
introduced me to a lady (without naming her) as his niece — I had 
no means of ascertaining, therefore, whether she were married or 
single. As, however, she had quite a large face and quite a little 
turban over it, I felt but little curiosity about the matter. The 

"CoL Henry Maynadier (d. 1849 at 91 years of age), owned "Belvoir," near 
Annapolis, afterward home of Hon. Brice John WorAington. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 253 

Colonel, at length, ponied up to the $5.00 notch, and I left the 
house fully determined in my own mind, whatever sacrifice it 
might require, never to attempt unravelling the interesting ambi- 
guity which hung over the condition of his (to me) nameless 
niece. I next went into the store of George E. Franklin, whom I 
found behind the stove, engaged in the contemplation of a very 
ingenious and beautiful windmill, in miniature; which, when in 
operation, alternatively elevated and depressed a number of lilli- 
putian personages, who, to judge from their countenances, seemed 
highly delighted with the sport. Whether or not it was the influ- 
ence of tliis invaluable machine, the fact is he found no diffi- 
culty in raising the wind, and I left his store with $5.00 more 
than when I entered it. Nothing could exceed the delight with 
which Dick Gill gave me five dollars, and Mr. James Iglehart, 
though ordinarily hard of hearing, was not at all deaf to the 
Bishop's appeal. In the afternoon, I rode out to the residence 
of Richard McKubbin, about two miles from town. This young 
gentleman resides in a beautiful situation beyond College Creek, 
his house being situated upon the summit of a lofty hill, and com- 
manding a view of Annapolis, the adjacent country and the dis- 
tant bay. The house is old, however, and the room into which I 
was ushered almost destitute of furniture. There was a bottle 
upon the table, at which my host seemed to have been occupied 
(I mean the table, not the bottle) , containing some dark colored 
liquid, which I charitably supposed to be molasses. He gave me 
five dollars without a murmur. During the day I had called upon 
one or two persons who declined contributing, but as Dante says: 
" Non parliam di lor, ma guarda e passa." On my return from 
Mr. McKubbins I visited Mr. Winslow, to tell him of my success 
and to take leave of him. He was very polite to me. I then 
visited and took tea with Mrs. Harwood, where, also, I met with 
Mrs. Tilten. These ladies treated me with all the politeness and 
civility I forced out of them and with no more. I retired early 
and slept till late 

On Tuesday morning, March 19, 1844. At the breakfast table 
I sat opposite to an old man, very coarsely clad, whom I took to 
be a rustic. When he left the room, however, the servant 
informed me that it was lawyer Macgruder, the father of a young 

'° Apparently Richard W. Gill, son of John Gill of Alexandria, Va., and his wife 
Ann E. Deale, daughter of Capt. James Deale of Anne Arundel Oninty. 



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man whom I had seen lounging about the tavern ever since my 
arrival. . . . The old man returned quite opportunely, in a fev/ 
minutes, and putting on his spectacles seated himself very de- 
liberately to read the newspaper. I thought the Bishop's letter 
would be as new to him as anything else, and accordingly took 
the liberty of laying it before him. He perused it with great 
attention, looked over my book, and with a deep sigh gave me 
five dollars. I now prepared for departure. My bill was enorm- 
ous; so much so that I was induced to look over the items and 
found mistakes to the amount of nearly $5.00 which I compelled 
the book-keeper to rectify. I firmly believe the imposition was 
designed. The morning was exceedingly cool as I bounded over 
the hills in the direction of South River ferry. Scarcely a stone, 
except now and then a few rounded pebbles, was anywhere visible. 
The soil between Annapolis and the river appeared to be very 
poor. The ferry is more than half a mile wide, and the three 
colored oarsmen were at the same time drunk, noisy and talkative. 
One of them dug up for me upon the beach a little shell fish 
called a mannenose, highly esteemed in these parts as a table 
luxury. Its place is indicated by a small hole in the sand, beneath 
which it lies to the depth, generally, of about half a foot. It re- 
sembled very mudi in appearance the clam. After crossing the 
ferry I pursued a public road, interrupted at least every quarter 
of a mile by a gate, frequently crossing a field without a fence 
upon either side, but more frequently having a fence upon one 
side of the way, but rarely upon both. It was in this neighbor- 
hood that I met a procession of negroes, about 14 or 15 in num- 
ber, men, women and children, all bearing pieces of wood, nicely 
balanced upon their heads. The first two or three who passed 
had very moderately sized turbans, and although my mare once 
or twice started back aghast, she bore it upon the whole like a 
heroine; but when the coiffure was augmented to several yards in 
length, beautifully decorated with knots and branches, the sensi- 
tive animal could stand it no longer; she whirled suddenly round 
and fled precipitately away. I succeeded, however, in rallying her 
at last, and charged gallantly by the black headed phalanx in the 
direction of Mr. Brande's house *^ where I arrived about 12 o'clock. 

Rev. William F. Brand, a native of Louisiana, who became rector in 1842 of 
All Hallow's, Anne Arundel County, and in 1849 of St. Mary's, Harford County. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



255 



That gentleman recognized me immediately; invited me in, showed 
me several literary curiosities, gave me an excellent dinner, and 
accompanied me about two miles on my way in the afternoon. 
He may, without exaggeration, be called an oddity. Before dining, 
he invited me upstairs to wash my hands, and showed me little 
frames for hanging towels of his own workmanship — decidedly 
the ugliest things of the kind I had ever seen. His wife and sister 
were absent on a visit in the neighborhood. To this place he also 
rode in the afternoon, with a valise behind his saddle, stuffed 
perfectly full. Knowing that probably he did not intend to re- 
main longer than a few hovirs — certainly not longer than the next 
morning, I asked him the reason of this. He told me he thought 
it would be a saving of time to take his clean clothes with him, 
instead of waiting at home until he could put them on. Not one 
word of encouragement did he give me to make a collection 
among his parishioners. I therefore passed through, shaking off 
the dust of my feet, whenever said dust interfered with the 
brightness of my boots. I arrived at Mr. Morsell's about 4 
o'clock.*^ This gentleman's hospitable reception amounted almost 
to ectasy. When I mentioned my object, he jumped into it to the 
tune of $100.00 assuring me that I would not pick up among his 
parishioners a cent more or less than that specific amount. He 
gave me an account also of numerous extinct volcanoes, all of 
which were formerly to have blazed forth for the glory and pros- 
perity of Westminster. What a blessed privilege but to peep into 
their silent craters! Mr. Morsell is an excellent man, amiable, 
kind and hospitable, and withal excitable and benevolent. It is 
dangerous, however, to attempt to fire him in favor of any cause 
whatsoever, by reason of his having one of the very finest hair- 
triggers ever touched in behalf of benevolence. Such precipitancy 
gives rise to sudden professions which are seldom realized and 
often repented of. I think indeed that Mr. Morsell began to 
repent before he sought his pillow, for finding me somewhat of 
a churchman in my speculative views (would I could say my re- 
ligious ones!) his fevor in our behalf seemed gradually to relax. 
As Mr. Morsell has stepped exactly into old Mr. Chesley's shoes 

Rev. Joshua Morsell, a native of Calvert Co., was in 1844 rector of St. James', 
Anne Arundel County. 

" Rev. Wm. F. Chesley, also a native of Calvert County, was rector of St. James' 
from 1830 until he died in 1843 and was succeeded by his son-in-law. 



6 



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(having married the daughter of that reverend gentleman, the 
former rector of the parish) he knows exactly where they pinch. 
Far be it for me to presume to point out the tender spot. Mrs. 
Morsel] appears to be a very lively, amiable woman, who laughs 
at nothing and at everything. She seems to look upon the bright 
side of life, and to find it a perpetual joke. I believe that if you 
should crook two of your fingers at her at the same time, it would 
be her death. Her sister. Miss Mary, appears equally amiable. 
She looks very much like Sally Owen in her loveliest moments 
might be expected to look, if viewed through a pane of exceed- 
ingly uneven glass. Mr. Morsell thinks there is a great likeness 
between his wife and Mrs. J. Brune."* The resemblance would 
indeed be perfect if Mrs. Morsell could be viewed through the 
medium of a two inch pine plank. Mrs. Chesley, poor woman, 
is very deaf, and her son, the Doctor, very dumb — I mean taciturn; 
otherwise he appears to be a very sensible and amiable young 
man. Another son had chills; otherwise he too, appeared to be 
a very sensible and amiable young man. In fact, I was highly 
pleased with the whole family. Morsell and I talked till a very 
late hour. Indeed, the length of that gentleman's tongue may be 
looked upon as a natural curiosity. 

Wednesday, March 20. With the assistance of a map made by 
the fair hands of Mrs. Morsell, I set out immediately after break- 
fast, upon a begging expedition. Mr. Ed. Hall, upon whom I 
first called, not being at home and the young lady who spoke to 
me seeming to look upon all introduced gentlemen as dangerous 
and perfidious monsters, I was obliged to pursue my route to the 
residence of Mrs. Waters. This fair but portly widow tempted 
me with an apple, " and I did eat." She seemed to have some 
indistinct notion that Carroll County was situated somewhere 
within the bounds of Anne Arundel, a prejudice which I was very 
glad to have it in my power, by the exhibition of my travelling 
map, to disabuse her of. After searching a long time for writing 
materials, she at length requested me to make her a pen, where- 
with she subscribed five dollars to our church. I next visited the 
house of Mr. Jas. Kent, whose wife received me, in the absence 
of her husband.*'^ If possible, her manners were colder than her 

" Mrs. Bnine was Anne Letitia Coale, daughter .of Edward J. Coale, publisher 
and bookseller of Baltimore. 
" Probably a son of Gov. Joseph Kent. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



257 



parlour. She heard what I had to say, and seemed to think it 
likely she would mention it to her husband. She has, entire, a 
beautiful set of teeth of the most approved manufacture — so says 
the parson's wife. At first I thought they were the product of 
her own gums. The next person I visited was Mrs. Gott, an 
elderly lady, who wore about her neck a rappee colored handker- 
chief to correspond with what she seemed to be in the habit 
of inhaling. With such a beautiful display of harmonious adjust- 
ment, it will readily be concluded that the lady was up to snuff. 
The consequence of which was that instead of five I received 
another split ticket of two dollars and a half. From this place I 
rode to Dr. Cheston's, who, being unwell, Mrs. Cheston received 
me, with becoming warmth in a cold parlour.^' She took my 
book and the Bishop's letter upstairs, and kept them at least three- 
quarters of an hour. When she returned, however, I was amply 
compensated to perceive an addition of $10.00 to the column. 
Mrs. Cheston very much resembled Kitty Sullivan, but as Kitty 
has a very sour, and Mrs. Cheston a very sweet face, the similarity 
may be illustrated by the resemblance which a lemon in its natural 
state bears to one beautifully encrusted with sugar. From this 
place I cantered over to Mr. Harry Hall's. This gentleman's 
" house is seated on a rising ground," commanding on one side 
an extensive inland view, and on the other a prospect of the 
Chesapeake, and even of the Eastern Shore. Mr. Hall, an elderly 
man of genteel appearance, with light colored hair, half sandy 
and half gray, is very deaf. In reference to myself and my mis- 
sion, he exhibited himself as, at once, open handed and close 
fisted. He very politely insisted upon my remaining to dine with 
him, but seemed principled against subscribing his name to any 
donation. He promised to give something, but I doubt if he 
ever recollects it. Mr. Wilson, whom I next called to see, was 
away from home. I therefore returned with all haste to Mr. 
Morsell's, arriving at the same moment that Mrs. Kent and her 
daughter drove up to the door. They came to attend prayer- 
meeting and a lecture, which takes place every Wednesday eve- 
ning at Mr. M's residence. A number of persons were assembled, 
and Morsell Methodized without being at all in rule. During 

*' Rappee, a coarse kind of snuflf. 

"Dr. James Cheston of "Ivy Neck" in 1844 married, as his third wife, Sally 
Scott Murray, daughter of Daniel and Mary Dorsey Murray. 



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the day I collected about $30.00. Tlie evening we spent in 
sociable chit-chat. 

Thursday, March 21. As soon after breakfast as I conveniently 
could I took an affectionate leave of Morsell and his family, and 
mounted upon my cantering Rosinante, proceeded in the direction 
of Mount Pleasant ferry over the Patuxent on the way to Upper 
Marlborough. The morning was cool, and the air exceedingly 
raw. When I had gone about three or four miles, I met a country- 
man walking along the road, from whom I requested directions 
for my onward route. These he gave me with all the politeness 
imaginable; until at last a sudden idea seemed to strike him, and 
giving me a significant look he said he knew I was from the City, 
and that he was well aware what sort of a character I was. When 
I begged him to explain, he said, " you're one of those Q)llectors." 
I acknowledged the com[pliment] . I felt conscious that I was a 
collector. I told him so. Without waiting for any further ex- 
planation, he bolted off, and all my entreaties could not induce 
him to return and complete the direction he had commenced. I 
presumed he thought me one of the collectors of the direct tax, 
and knowing himself to be a defaulter, made off as rapidly as 
possible. I then dismissed the matter from my thoughts. After 
riding forward a mile or two, I happened to look around and 
discovered a man on horseback with a very ferocious aspect, and 
carrying a gun upon his shoulder, who was gaining rapidly upon 
me. The thought instantly struck me, how imprudent I had 
been in giving the countryman to understand that I was a col- 
lector. I felt convinced that he had hurried away from me to 
apprise one of his confederates of the fact; and that this man now 
riding in pursuit was intent either upon robbery or vengeance. I 
felt no particular desire to be made an actor in either the one or 
the other of these sanguinary transactions — especially as the great 
solitude of the place would render it exceedingly uninteresting as 
a tableau vivant " — and the idea of a " dead picture " was even 
worse. Actuated by all these considerations, I put spurs — or 
rather heels, to my horse — for spurs I had none — and galloped 
off in the most gallant style imaginable. Looking around, in a 
short time I perceived my pursuer rapidly gaining upon me; I 
urged my horse to the top of her ^eed; the horse behind seemed 
to have reached its maximum velocity. It would have been an 
intensely interesting question in s^im^le equations to have set down 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



259 



the speed of my horse at 40 (for she was going precisely like that 
often quoted and popular number) and the speed of my pur- 
suer's horse at 40 + x, and then to have calculated how long it 
would have taken his horse to have overtaken mine. But I felt 
very little inclination for cyphering at the moment, although the 
quantity of fine sand in the road would have rendered it a charm- 
ing spot for an ancient mathematician. Onward we went, helter- 
skelter, up hill and down hill, through lonesome pines, which 
uttered a dirge-like sigh as I passed along, and every few minutes 
through a lumbering gate which I always tried to shut after me 
as tightly and securely as possible. At last I came to a famous 
gate. It closed in the middle of a deep mud puddle. Fortunately, 
it was slightly open when I reached it, so that I had very little 
difficulty in passing through. But as I am always conscientious 
about shutting gates, so I particularly attended to that duty upon 
the present occasion. What was my delight to perceive that the 
gate when closed could not possibly be opened by a person upon 
horseback, and with great difficulty, at any rate. Now was my 
time to fly; depend upon it, I made the best use of it, and when at 
last I reached a distant eminence and looked behind, I had the 
satisfaction of seeing my unrelenting pursuer dismounted from 
his horse, and still tugging away at the obstinate and faithful 
gate. I never saw him again, for shortly afterwards I reached 
the ferry, was pushed across by a stoical colored man, and pur- 
sued my way through a gatey but still a fertile looking country in ' 
the direction of Upper Marlborough. This place I reached about 
2 o'clock. This town is very curiously as well as very beautifully 
situated. It is surrounded in all directions except the Southeast 
by high hills, and appears to lie in a basin which must formerly 
have served as a reservoir of water. The idea struck me the 
moment I cast my eye over the prospect, and what was my sur- 
prise to find it verified in a high marl-bank quite close to the 
town, where the irmumerable remains of extinct species of shell 
fish were distinctly visible. This to me was very curious, as I had 
never before seen a marl-bank. After a late dinner I shaved, read 
and wrote until tea-time, after which I visited the Revd Mr. 
Traphell,** whom I found sitting with his wife, a very pretty 

Rev. Joseph Trapnell, Jr., a native of Maryland, in 1844 was rector of Trinity 
Church, Upper Marlboro. 



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woman, as plump and as round as a cherry. Trapnell gave me 
every encouragement and afforded me every facility in making 
my application among his parishioners. He is a very agreeable 
man in his conversation, and shows a remarkably fine set of teeth 
when he laughs. I retired to bed at an early hour. 

Friday, March 22. Early in the morning, with the assistance of 
an excellent chart prepared for me by Mr. Trapnell, I took my 
circuit among his parishioners. The first person I called on was 
Mr. Clagett,*" whose wife, he being unwell, read the Bishop's 
letter very slowly for her own benefit in the first instance, and 
then taking it into an adjoining room, reperused it, aloud, at least 
four times, as different members of the family made their appear- 
ance, in succession. During ail this time I was left to the refresh- 
ing coolness of the parlour where I had first been ushered. But 
coldness is nothing when attended with profit — as in this case it 
was, for Mrs. Clagett at length reappeared and presented me 
with $10.00. Her husband is said to be very wealthy. They live 
in a good house, well situated, with many indications of plainness 
and rusticity; together with some few, very few efforts at style. 
From this place I rode over to Mr. Sasscer's, whom, absent when 
I first called, I met as I was riding away. Instead of telling him 
my business in the road, as I might easily have done, I thought it 
more politic to accept his invitation and ride home with him., 
where, before a warm fire, the rudy glow of benevolence might 
descend from his cheeks into his heart. It seems that I judged 
rightly in some measure, for, saying that he was somewhat con- 
scientious about the matter himself, he nevertheless insisted upon 
his M'ife's giving me $5.00. I acted upon the maxim of not look- 
ing " the gift horse in the mouth " and to this day Mr. Sasscer's 
scruples remain to me a matter of interesting and inscrutible 
perplexity. I then called at the houses of Mr. Chew and his 
nephewj^" who live near each other. They were both absent. 
Mr. Hodkins,°^ whom I next called upon, although unwilling to 
contribute anything himself, notwithstanding his perfect ability 

*" Thomas Clagett, of " Weston," 6th Thomas in direct line from the emigrant. 
His 2nd wife was Adeline, daughter of Dr. Thomas Ramsey Hodges, and widow of 
Dr. Benjamin Mundell. They were married Nov. 13, 1838. 

Philemon Chew, son of Maj. Richard Chew and of his 2nd wife Frances 
(Holland) Chew. The nephew was Leonard Hollyday Chew. 

"' Mr. Hodkins," was probably Thomas Hodgkins who married Lucy Brooke, 
daughter of Col. Thomas Brooke. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



261 



to do so, yet took the liveliest interest in helping me to find the 
elder Mr. Chew, upon whose generosity he seemed to place a 
jtnuch higher reliance than upon his own. This interesting feature 
in Mr. Hodkins' character — ^his entire distrust of his own good 
qualities, and his entire reliance upon those of his neighbors — is 
worthy of notice and may be held up as an instructive example. 
In the absence of her husband, Mrs. Chew invited me to dine 
with her. Mrs. Baker [Brooke ?] and Miss Brookes were invited 
guests. The dinner was good, my hostess kind, and the ladies 
affable. I spent consequently an agreeable time. On my leaving 
her, Mrs. Chew told me that if her husband would not contribute 
something towards the building of our church, she would. The 
Chew house is handsomely situated upon an eminence command- 
ing an extensive prospect of the distant Patuxent and a large tract 
of intervening country. They appear to live pretty mudi in our 
own style— which I take it, is neither too plain nor too elegant for 
comfort. From this place I returned to Upper Marlborough, and 
among the citizens first called upon the portly, sonorous and 
wealthy Mr. Scott." This gentleman flew into a violent passion 
as soon as he read the Bishop's letter, and stated that he never 
would contribute a single cent to the erection of any church, until 
he knew what trumpet was to be blown in it. I might have told 
him that I should have been blowing a very brazen one myself, if - 
I undertook to inform him of any of those secrets which belong 
exclusively to futurity; but I curbed this witty sally, because it 
would not in any way have corresponded with the tirade of bal- 
derdash Mr. Scott thought proper to inflict upon me. I made 
no reply, and seeking Mr. Beale and finding him and nothing 
else, next directed my steps to another quarter of the town. Mr. 
Pratt gave me $10.00 in the twinkling of an eye; this gentleman 
is spoken of as the most prominent candidate for the next Guber- 
natorial vacancy.^* If I can do so consistently, I'll patronize Pratt. 

" Horatio Scott who married Henrietta Maria "Waring, daughter of Col. Henry 
Waring of " Mount Pleasant." 

" Capt. George Beale, who married the widow of Capt. Eversfield Bowie. He 
was grandfather of Truxton Beale and Gen. Edward F. Beale. 

"Gov. Thomas George Pratt (1804-1869), was born in Georgetown, D. C, a 
descendant of Thomas Pratt of Prince George's Co. and his wife Eleanor Magnider. 
He practised law in Upper Marlboro, was elected Governor in 1844 and U. S. 
Senator in 1849. An ardent secessionist, he was confined in Fortress Monroe. His 
wife was Adelaide, daughter of Gov. Joseph Kent. 



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With lawyer Tuck's " subscription of $5.00 my labors of the day 
came to a termination, though I did myself the pleasure to attend 
a lecture at Mr. Trapnell's house at night. As a number of peo- 
ple were present, and the room was very close, with a hot coal 
fire in it, I was compelled to give many nods of approbation 
before the lecture concluded, which, as I did not wish to flatter 
Mr. Trapnell unnecessarily, I hope he did not perceive. I went 
to bed at an early hour, and slept like a top until 

Saturday, March 23, when, after breakfasting and Trapnel- 
lizing, I set out in pursuit of Mr. Mackenheimer's,^^ intending 
however to call upon certain persons by the way, Mr. Hilliary, 
to whose house I first went, gave me the agreeable spectacle of a 
long beard and an excellent hand writing; he subscribed five 
dollars, with a promise to pay at some future period. Thence, I 
rode to Mr. John Hodges, who exhibited before me three or four 
of the prettiest children I had ever seen; I patted and praised 
them all, and in return received a note for $5.00. This gentle- 
man's appearance pleased me very much; he deserves the hand- 
some place and handsome style in which he lives, for he appears 
to be in the highest degree amiable, generous and hospitable. 
But, if pleased with John, much more was I captivated by Ben- 
jamin Hodges." The only man I had met with since leaving 
home whom I yearned to make my bosom friend was Benjamin 
Hodges. He lives in a small but neat house on the very summit 
of a lofty hill; in the same way as his heart, which appears to be 
the abode of all the domestic virtues, towers above the generality 
of its kind. At this place I dined, and should have been glad to 
have supped, bedded and breakfasted there, had not the puospect 
of Washington and the delights there to be experienced ad- 
monished me to proceed. Mrs. Hodges appears to have a spirit 
congenial with her husband; and old Mrs. Hodges, the mother, 

""Wm. Hallam Tuck (1808-1884), married Margaret Sprigg Bowie Chew. 
Member of the House of Delegates, later of the Maryland Senate, member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1851, he became judge of the Court of Appeals in 
1852 and later was a Circuit Judge. 

" Rev. George Lindenberger Machenheimer, a native of Baltimore, in 1844 was 
rector of Queen Anne's Parish, embracing St. Barnabas' Church and Henderson 
Chapel. The latter was created a separate parish as Holy Trinity later in the year 
1844. The church is at the present CoUington. St. Barnabas' was and is one of 
the finest old church buildings in the State. 

"'John and Benjamin Hodges were sons of John Hodges of Upper Marlboro 
and his wife Rebecca Berry. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



263 



although she wheezes most distressingly, may, for aught I know, 
be as estimable as either of them. • The country passed through 
during my afternoon's ride appeared to be very fertile, and must 
in summer be very beautiful; it is called the forest of Prince 
George's."* There seems to be no intermediate class between the 
slave and the extensive landholder. The fields appear to be 
immensely large; and the road, without a fence upon either side, 
winds its way through the midst of them. Every half mile there 
is a gate, and every now and then appears a stately residence. I 
generally made it a point to inquire the name of the owners, and 
the replies induced me to believe that a large part of the country 
is settled by the Bowie family. I met with but two white persons 
during a ride of at least fourteen miles, and those two, riding 
together, I encountered just in time to prevent my losing my way. 
Mr. Mackenheimer's house is situated about 50 yards from a very 
neat little chapel, which is about 10 miles distant from the parish 
church, which venerable building I had passed shortly after leav- 
ing Mr. Hodges's. The situation of both house and chapel is 
very beautiful and some care seems to have been devoted to their 
decoration. The pastor received me hospitably in the first instance; 
but most hospitably when he ascertained my object and euphoni- 
ous appellation. As he himself rejoices in a long, sonorous name 
(George Lindenberger Mackenheimer) he seems to have a par- 
ticular fancy for measuring patronymics with every long-telled 
son of Adam he encounters; and as he is usually victorious in all 
such engagements, it seems to preserve his mind in a state of the 
most philanthropic good humour. I am only left to conjecture 
what would be the acerbity of his feelings in meeting with such 
men as Hononchrotonthologos or Aldiborontifoscophornio. As, 
however, after a tight spell of it, he beat me by at least three 
letters, he seemed to be overpowered with joyful emotion, and I 
verily believe I shall retain him as a friend through life. But, 
besides the length of our names, we found a new bond of attach- 
ment in a connection by marriage with our families. The moment 
this connection was discovered, although I had for some time 
been conversing with Mr. Mackenheimer upon terms of the most 
intimate acquaintanceship, the good pastor commenced a formal 

In colonial times " the forest " meant country away from tidewater. After 
that came " the back country." These terms were used in both Maryland and 
Virginia. 



264 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



introduction of me to his family — saying, Mrs. Mackenheimer, 
Mi. V. B.— Miss Willard, Mr. V. B.— children, Mr. V. B. Miss 
"Willard, the governess, a New England lady, was very delicate 
in her appearance; Mrs. Mackenheimer, on the contrary, was very 
portly and robust, and children (for I had thus been introduced to 
them) were, like all others in the world, various in their beauty 
and qualifications. " We talked of virtue till the time of bed; " 
and if there be any virtue in sleep, I spent the night certainly to 
great advantage. 

Sunday, March 24. The sun shone brightly, but the air was 
piercing cold, as, during the forenoon Mr. Mackenheimer' s large 
and fashionable looking congregation assembled at the chapel. 
On either side of the building there was a row of handsome 
equipages, and fine looking riding horses were fastened in every 
direction around the Chapel yard. The interior presented more 
the aspect of a city gathering, than a congregation from the bosom 
of a forest. The serman was first-rate; read to be sure, but read 
in first-rate style. It was upon the subject of liberality in behalf 
of charitable purposes, and where it was at all necessary, cut 
directly to the quick. I have seldom been better pleased. Before 
service, Mr. Tyler,^'' learning by accident the nature of my mis- 
sion, voluntarily gave me $5.00. During the afternoon, I spent a 
very pleasant time in conversation with Mr. Mackenheimer and 
his family, that gentleman being exceedingly pleasant and talka- 
tive, and his family in the highest degree kind and hospitable. He 
read me a short journal of his giving an account of a visit to Cape 
May during the last summer, and I, in return, read him some 
extracts from my journal, with which he was pleased to express 
himself quite gratified. 

Monday, March 25. After breakfast, I rode over to the resi- 
dence of Senator Bowie,''" but not finding him at home, returned 
to the parsonage, and shortly after, in company with Mr. Macken- 
heimer set out for "Washington. We passed through a poor and 
uninteresting tract of country, and arrived about three o'clock 
greatly fatigued by reason of the unusual warmth of the weather. 

Grafton Tyler, M. D., who married Mary Margaret, daughter of Walter Bowie, 
Jr., of '" Locust Grove," Prince George's Co. Dr. Tyler was from Frederick, Md,. 
but settled in Georgetown, D. C. 

Col. William Duckett Bowie, State Senator, of " Fairview," father of Gov. 
Oden Bowie by his iirst wife. Maty 'Eliza. Oden. 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



265 



The parson and I repaired immediately to an oyster cellar, where 
we were provided with a plentiful meal and a good glass of wine. 
I spent the afternoon chiefly in strolling about and lounging in 
bookstores. There was need of something soothing to calm the 
multitude of ideas which agitated my mind. At length I took a 
cup of strong tea, but thinking that scarcely sufficient, I fortified 
it with a cup of coffee. Thus primed, I strolled by moonlight in 
the direction of the President's house, and, with the aid of numer- 
ous directions, found my way at length in front of the small but 
neat and quiet residence of Mrs. Evileth. After rapping for some 
time, a colored girl appeared and answered, in reply to my inquiry, 
that Miss Kate ®^ was at home, but confined by sickness to her 
bed. Surprise and sorrow took possession of me for a few mo- 
ments — when, sending up my card, I turned dejectedly away. 
Scarcely had I gone fifty yards from the door, when the maid 
came running after me to tell me that Miss Kate expected to be 
up tomorrow, and hoped that I would then call upon her. Such 
was my joy at receiving this intelligence, that, colored as she was, 
I could have turned around and given her a hearty kiss. It being 
Lent, however, I abstained, and after a tedious walk, solicited and 
obtained a long and private interview with " tired Nature's sweet 
restorer." 

Tuesday, March 26, After breakfast, Mr. Mackenheimer accom- 
panied me on a visit to the rector of Trinity parish, the Rev. Mr. 
Stringfellow,^^ and after measuring names with him, and finding 
that they were exactly even, stated concisely the nature of his 
errand and left the house as speedily as possible. It is impossible 
to convey any idea in words of Mr. Mackenheimer's peculiarities 
of manner. Nothing but mimickry of a high order could convey 
any impression of his numerous little oddities and excentricities. 
I take him to be a very amiable man, of great simplicity of heart 
and character. He strongly reminds me of his own uncle, Jacob 
Lindenberger, who was also my uncle, by marriage. Expression 
of countenance, tone of voice, peculiarity of manner, bent of mind 
and disposition — everything, in a word, recalls to my mind the 
recollection of my deceased uncle, whom in childhood I was so 

°' Daughter of James Eveleth, of the Office of U. S. Engineers. The family lived 
at this time on G St., N. between 18th and 19th Sts. 

Rev. Horace Stringfellow, of Virginia, rector of Trinity Church, Washington, 
from 1839 to 1847. 



266 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

fond of, but who died when the parson was much too young to 
be capable of imitating him — a fact, which proves that manners, 
habits and disposition are in a great measure innate, and not the 
result of education. Mr. Stringfellow, although excessively cold 
in his manners, was nevertheless generous in his actions. He gave 
me a long list of the wealthiest of his parishioners, and a letter 
of introduction to the Rev* Mr. Hawley. Between 12 and 1 
o'clock I called upon Miss Kate — the incomparable Kate Eveleth! 
and found her the more interesting, perhaps, by reason of her 
hoarseness and debility, the effects, of her late indisposition — a 
severe attack of croup. Oh, Heaven's! how graciously she re- 
ceived me ! Ah me ! how poorly my own behaviour responded to 
the reception! But, I could not help it. Had I been a total 
stranger, among none other but total strangers, I could have been 
at ease. I could have been merry, perhaps happy. But to meet 
for the first time with Kate, whom I knew so well, for whom I 
entertain so sincere a friendship, in the midst of a crowd of peo- 
ple not only strangers, but absolutely disagreeable to me (the 
Pottses, the Grahams and the Crawfords), produced a revulsion 
of feelings from which during the whole time of my stay in 
Washington, I was never enabled to recover. For this foolish 
weakness (a weakness alike foolish and unconquerable) I was 
punished by observing in Kate a total want of that jovial cordi- 
ality which formerly subsisted between us, and a gradually increas- 
ing reserve which only tended to augment the embarrassment of ' 
my position. I subsided at length into a fixed solemnity of de- 
portment, the rigidity of which it would have been difficult even 
for Punch or Harlequin to relax. I can have but a very faint con- 
ception of the impression wliich my deportment must have pro- 
duced. Conceive of a man naturally disagreeable, endeavoring to 
heighten the dispensations of nature by a frightful length of 
visage, and a dogged suUenness of demeanor. The result must 
undoubtedly have been the exhibition of all that is most intoler- 
able in the social state. Not^vithstanding this, my stay in "Wash- 
ington was anything but disagreeable, indeed there was a pleasure 
attending it, which, considering the circumstances just alluded to, 
it is difficult to explain, almost impossible to conceive of. There 
was a magic influence of some kind which forced me to linger 
there from day to day — and infused a species of transport into 



A MARYLAND TOUR IN 1844 



267 



what must have appeared to others a state of misery. But enough 
of this! Mrs. Maynadier most hospitably insisted upon a removal 
of my baggage to her house that very evening. Here, I was pro- 
vided with every comfort, and treated with a warmth of hos- 
pitality I had never before experienced. Never shall I forget 
the kindness experienced under the roof of Capt. and Mrs. Mayna- 
dier. Alas! How shabbily did I respond to it! Without retain- 
ing any longer the journal form, I will group together the 
principal incidents of my visit to Washington, and hasten home 
as rapidly as possible. [End of Ms. At the back of the book are 
the following:] 



[Estimated Collections for Westminster Church Building] 

Subscription list, $ 620. 

Money in bank, 292. 

Baltimore collections, 90. 

Travelling collections, 246. 

Mr. Raymond, 50. 

Lectures, 16. 



11314. 

Expectations traveling, 50.") 

Frederick, 200 . > Expectations 

Baltimore and elsewhere, 436.J 

$2000. 



[Account of Expenses] 



March 6 Fourman 5.00 

Cars 1.25 
" Carrying valise -^^¥2 
" Silliman's lecture & Man Chew •^'^Vi 

March 7 Gloves for self & Chew 2.00 

" Saddle bags, bridle, martingale & spur 6.00 

Books, blanket .50 

T.i.L. 1.871/2 

March 8 Comb & brush 1.00 

Umbrella 1.50 

Mar. 8.9 Dinner, Supper, lodging, breakfast & servant 2.00 

Cars to Sykesville 1.25 

Bill at Sykesville for horse & self 2.00 
Sundries .25 



268 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

March 11. Dinner & horsefeed, between Sykesville & 

W. Harrison's .50 

Oysters & sundries at Elli. Mills .50 

Servant at Hugh Harrisons .20 



27.5tl/2 

March 12-14 at EUicotts Mills 4.00 

Servants .25 

Passage on Cars from relay house to Anappolis 1.00 

Horse at relay house, one night .50 

Dinner, horse & servant on road .50 

Gates & cakes .25 

March 15 Boy for bringing horse from relay house to 

Annapolis 1.75 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Ranger Mosby. By Virgil Carrington Jones. Raleigh: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1944. 347 pp. $3.50. 

Today we read much of guerilla fighting, underground organization and 
partisan warfare, activities which are recognized as important insurance for 
ultimate victories against aggressive enemies. It is difficult to realize that 
not long ago the value of such activity was questioned since the science of 
military tactics had no place for it in its manuals. Such was the case in the 
fighting of 1861-1865. 

Outlining early guerilla warfare during this period and contrasting our 
current impression of the personalities of such fighters, this new book on 
Colonel John S. Mosby, the dashing Southern leader of organized partisan 
activity against Hooker, Meade, Sheridan and Grant, reveals him as a most 
successful tactician of such fighting, and a singularly well-educated man 
who "' could lead his men into the jaws of death one moment and talk of 
birds and books and poetry the next." Wearing his plumed hat and 
flowing, red-lined cape, he directed mounted " strike — ^disrupt — retire " 
tactics paralleling Commando and Ranger activities of current days. The 
Virginian was far ahead of his time in using his troopers for scouting and 
pestering, designed always to upset and delay the enemy's plans. With all 
this dash and color, catalysed by his commander, General J. E. B. Stuart, 
Mosby remained a calm thinker who based all of his decisions on his 
analysis of the facts at hand ; this was characterized by his active support 
of General Ulysses S. Grant for President during the post-war political 
campaigning of 1867 against strong Southern opposition. 

Mosby's military judgment was held in high esteem by Lee, and many 
of the Northern reports are interwoven with praise of the raider's prowess 
in disrupting their lines. 

It is interesting to note that while the armies of Lee and Johnston were 
suflfering from lack of supplies and replacements weeks before Appomat- 
tox, Mosby's command had risen at that time to its greatest strength in 
efficiency and numbers. This was due largely to the absorption of trained 
cavalrymen from broken commands, and the attraction of informal discip- 
line under which the Partisan Rangers operated. 

The author has delved into a large amount of available source material 
to fill in the outline formulated at wintry sessions around the hot stove 
of the GordonsviUe store and around the banquet tables at Confederate 
reunions. His substantiation of many incidents cements them to the struc- 
ture of the past as factual data. By attempting a fictionalized introduction 



269 



270 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



through the first chapter, some uncertainty is encountered; this can be 
forgotten if the reader succeeds in bridging this shakiness to reach tlie 
sohd ground of facts in succeeding chapters. 

During recent years a number of scholarly studies on figures and phases 
of the Civil War have come forth to replace many of thq biased, Jess 
accurate volumes, published largely during the " cooling " period after 
the heat of battle had subsided. This factual, yet colorfully interesting 
picture of Mosby will receive hearty welcome from students of military 
tactics and personalities. 

Edward M. Strauss, Jr. 

I'he Development of the Colonial Newspaper. By Sidney Kobre. Pitts- 
burgh: the author, 1944. 188 pp. 

This slender volume is an excellent introduction to the subject it ably 
handles. It contains a well-rounded synthesis of the origin and develop- 
ment of the colonial newspaper, illustrating thereby the political economic 
and cultural growth of early America, of the fight for freedom of the 
press, and of the newspaper's part in the building-up of colonial solidarity 
This book also stresses the inter-relationship of these various forces as 
they weave an American pattern. 

Mr. Kobre has managed to let each newspaper speak for itself : all the 
newspapers from 1690 to 1783 are presented, while all the important ones 
are examined in some detail. The liberal use of well-chosen quotations 
serves to bind the story together into a readable and refreshing work. 

Accounts of the colonial newspaper are found in the general works of 
Mott, Bleyer and Lee, with Lawrence Wroth's specializations in the colonial 
field. Mr. Kobre's book is a welcome addition to the colonial newspaper 
and serves as a satisfactory introduction to that important and productive , 
field in the history of Amerioin life and thought. It is a serious attempt 
to explain the newspaper and is not a mere compilation of facts. 

Of particular interest to Maryland readers, is the liberal amount of space 
devoted to the A\aryland Gazette and the Aiaryland Journal. The picture 
of Maryland life and culture in chapter VIII is well worth reading. While 
the story of Peter Zenger is properly recorded, great emphasis is placed 
on the importance of William Goddard as an exponent of a free press, 
in that editor's fight with the Whig Club of Baltimore. Here was not 
popular opposition to a royal governor but the uphill fight of a coura- 
geous and independent editor against Baltimore patriots. 

This book contains a table of contents, a bibliography, and a series of 
valuable charts and tables illustrating newspaper growth, population 
growth and export-import growth. Unfortunately there is no index. It is 
hard to understand how such an important feature of scholarly work 
could be omitted. 

John J. Tierney, S. S. 

St. Charles College, Catonsvilie, Md. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



271 



A Life of Travels. By C{onstantine] S[amuel] Rafinesque. (Chron- 
ica Botanica, Vol. 8, Number 2.) {Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Bo- 
tanica Co., 1944.]. [291-] 360 pp. $2.50. 

This monograph presents an account of his voyages and travels — mostly 
in Sicily and in the United States — by the well-known botanist, ichthyol- 
ogist and archaeologist, C. S. Rafinesque. Like many another remarkable 
man, this one was of mixed origin, the son of a Frenchman, who married 
a citizen of Greece, a woman of German extraction nee Schmaltz. The 
mother's unlovely name stood him in good stead when in Sicily, for he 
added it to his own, so he tells us, in order to pass as an American, which, 
for some reason or other, was in the interest of safety. This reprint of the 
1836 edition is accompanied by an interesting introduction by Dr. E. D. 
Merrill, of the Arnold Arboretum, in which a somewhat higher estimate 
is accorded to Rafinesque's work as a botanist, than that which, it appears, 
has been hitherto conceded by persons competent to hold an opinion on 
that subject. But whatever his standing as a scientist may be, or should be, 
Rafinesque was certainly an extraordinary, and in some respects, admir- 
able, man. Sicily seems to have been the land of his choice, although to 
him it was an isle " where every prospect pleases and only man is vile." 
He makes exception of certain kindly Sicilian scientists, who took an 
interest in his work (personal magnetism must have been one of his assets 
in life, for, wherever he went, he never lacked assistance) ; and he gives 
credit to the bandits for seldom, if ever, robbing one who carried little 
money on him and went unarmed. 

In the United States Rafinesque travelled hundreds of miles through 
forests and over mountains in quest of rare plants, generally and by prefer- 
ence afoot, for, as he truly says, one can not conveniently dismount from 
a horse every now and then in order to examine a flower. He travelled 
mostly alone, had little money on his person and was probably not infre- 
quently unarmed. Apparently, he had not the slightest fear of loneliness, 
of lawless men or of wild beasts. He did not, to be sure, penetrate very 
far to the West — no farther than what is now the state of Tennessee; 
but he wanted to join Lewis and Clark's Expedition, an ambition in which 
he was disappointed. Wherever he went Rafinesque sought out men of 
distinction, who were likely to be interested in his work. He enjoyed a 
great deal of hospitality, for which, no doubt, his hosts felt themselves 
well repaid. The present work is illustrated with two likenesses of Rafin- 
esque and enlivened with drawings by himself of two of his " belles amies 
de Kentucky," both unidentified, one Juliet, to whom he dedicated some 
verses, the other without a name, but of whom he says: " Elle etait 
seduisante, Belle aimable et charmante." This seductive Blue Grass belle 
appears against a background representing a tropical landscape, including 
a volcano in eruption (Mount Etna ?) . This reminds us of travelling 
opera troupe which gave a performance of Lucia di Lammermoor in a 
certain city in Georgia. The night before they had given Atda. One of 



7 



272 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



(he scenes in " Lucia " called for a background of the Scottish highlands ; 
but instead of that the astonished audience saw the River Nile and the 
Pyramids! 

William B. Marye. 



The English Geographers and the Anglo-American Frontier in the Seven- 
teenth Century. By Fulmer Mood. (University of California Pub- 
lications in Geography, Volume 6, No. 9, pp. 363-396.) Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1944. [33 pp.} 
35 cents. 

This interesting essay discusses the part played by the seventeenth cen- 
tury English geographers in the colonization of America. The first part 
provides a chronological account of the works of those writers, considered 
in four classes: handbooks of general or world geography, purely Amer- 
ican geographical works, volumes devoted exclusively to the English set- 
tlements, and books dealing with single areas or colonies. The conclusion 
is that, for the most part, the geographers did not produce works of merit. 

The first good book — George Gardner's Description of the New World 
Of America — appeared in 1651, almost half a century after the beginning 
of colonial activity. It was twenty years before the publication of another 
first-rate work, John Ogilby's America (1671). The general run of writers 
slapped together what data they could find, appropriated portions of pre- 
vious books, and turned out musty tomes which lacked the freshness of 
personal knowledge, smelled of the closet, and were invariably inaccurate. 
It is interesting to note that Maryland received only slight attention from 
anyone; New England, Virginia, and the island colonies — especially the 
last — dominated the scene. 

The second section of the essay surveys the attitude of the geographical 
writers toward colonization, and demonstrates " the intimate connection 
that existed between the business forces that promoted expansion on the 
one hand, and the literary advocates who supported and justified this 
expansionist movement on the other.' It is shown that, from the earliest 
times, the geographers allied themselves with the economic interests, 
aiding the promoters of settlements with favorable descriptions, generous 
comment, and even active partisanship. Several writers, indeed, grasped 
the possibilities of a farflung English empire long before the merchants 
and the diplomatists were aware of them. The final impression is, there- 
fore, that the geographers were more effective as promoters than as 
observers and chroniclers. 

This compact summary is a valuable contribution to colonization liter- 
ature. 



William D. Hoyt, Jr. 



BOOK REVIEWS 273 

American Historical Societies, 1790-1860. By Leslie W. Dunlap. 
Madison, Wis.: the Author, 1943. 238 pp. $3.50. 

The 65 societies which had been founded by I860 are here presented 
in a synthesis comprising the early history of the movement to collect the 
materials of American history and to make them known. Not all of this 
number survived; rmny were local to small communities and enjoyed brief 
careers. 

The author shows the motives which actuated the founders, the leader- 
ship, largely individual, which gave the successful ones their vitality and 
the trends in development and activities. This general picture is supported 
by a thumbnail sketch of each of the 65 societies. The Maryland Historical 
Society attracts notice by several unusual features, not all of which have 
been retained; for instance, provision for county chapters, formation of a 
gallery of fine arts other than historical, and efforts to make its rooms a 
social resort." It appears that this Society was twelfth in order of found- 
ing of those organizations now extant which bear state names. That of 
Massachusetts led in 1791. Then came New York 1804, Rhode Island 
and Maine 1822, New Hampshire 1823, Pennsylvania 1824, Connecticut 
1825, Virginia 1831, Kentucify 1838, Georgia 1839, Vermont 1840 and 
Maryland 1844. 

J. W. F. 



This Is Carlisle: A History of a Pennsylvania Town. By Milton Embick 
Flower and Lenore Embick Flower. {Carlisle; the Authors, 
1944.] 72 pp. $2.00. 

This sketch of a town which is Maryland's neighbor wears a fresh and 
inviting aspect. From the founding of Carlisle in 1750 to the present 

War, the development of the community is outlined with accompanying 
biographical data on the leading worthies. It is surprising to see the 
number of men of renown who figured in the town's history — Bouquet, 
Forbes, Andre, James Wilson, Armstrong, Molly Pitcher, Commodore 
Elliott, Brackenridge and others who lived in Carlisle for short or long 
periods. 

The town's physical development, its remaining examples of fine archi- 
tecture, its schools, churches and clubs receive appropriate notice. Well 
illustrated, well organized and well written, this little book should spur 
other comirwmities to emulation in history writing. 

J. W. F. 



274 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



OTHER BOOKS RECEIVED 

The Sullivan Expedition of 7779. Contemporary Newspaper Comment and Letters. 
By Albert Hazen Wright. [Cornell Universi^] (Studies in History, Nos. 
5, 6, 7, 8.) Ithaca: the Author, 1943. 53, 50, 34, 9 pp. Gift of author. 

Missouri — Day h'^ Day. By Floyd C. Shoemaker. Columbia, Mo.: State His- 
torical Society, 1943. 499 pp. Gift of Society. 

Karen Long, Medical Technician. By Mary Ellis Turner. New York: Dodd, 
Mead, 1943. 211 pp. Gift. 

The story of a volunteer in one of the laboratories of Johns Hopkins Hos- 

pital by a Batimore instructor in the Hopkins Medical School. 
Twenty-fifth Anniversary of Bon Secours Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, 1919-1944. 

[Baltimore: the Hospital, 1944.] 56 pp. Gift of Mother Superior. 
70 Years of St. Matthews Parish, Garrett County, Md., 1870-1940. By Thekla 

FuNDENBERG WEEKS. [Oakland, Md.: the Author, no date.] 52 pp. Gift 

of the author. 



NOTES AND QUERIES , 



A Lawyer's Advice to a Lawyer Son 

A letter written by Henry HoUyday (1771-1850) of " Ratcliffe Manor," 
Talbot County, to his son Richard C. Hollyday (1810-1885) then settling 
in Cumberland to practise law, has kindly been transcribed for use in the 
Magazine by Mr. Frederic Hollyday of " Kingshaven," St. Michaels', a 
member of the Society. The original is owned by the heirs of Col. Henry 
Hollyday of "St. Aubins," Easton. The writer was born at "Ratcliffe 
Manor," graduated at Princeton, married Ann, daughter of Richard Ben- 
nett and Ann Murray Carmichael of Queen Anne's County, served in the 
Maryland Senate and as judge of the Levy Court. The younger Hollyday 
later moved to Elkton, served as clerk of court, as a meniber of the House 
of Delegates, and as secretary of state under six governors. 

Ratcliffe, Augst. 20th 1834 

" My Dear Richard 

Altho I have not written to you since your settlement at Cumberland 
yet I have never ceased to feel great anxiety & deep concern on your 
account. It is by no means to be expected that you would get employment 
in your profession immediately, but thisi leizure may be turned to advan- 
tage, as it will afford you an opportunity of gaining a better knowledge 
of your profession by study, or improving yourself in general literature. 
I would not have you despair of obtaining business where you are at 
present located. You ought by no means to feel discouraged at small 
difficulties, but remember by unremitting industry, & perseverance, men 
seldom fail of success in any profession. I cannot omit to offer on occasion 
a few other suggestions, which I think may be useful to you in after life 
& to which I trust you will give that attention the importance of the 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



275 



subject requires. In transactions of business entrusted to your management 
always observe diligence, fidelity & dispatch. I have known men who have 
neither talents, nor knowledge of the law — by diligently collecting, faith- 
fully, & speedily paying of claims gain very extensive practice. I need 
scarcely remark that nothing should ever induce you to make use of your 
clients money. My Uncle James Hollyday stood as high for sound judg- 
ment, & extensive knowledge of the law as most men of his day. But he 
was preeminent as a man of integrity & fidelity. One of his maxims as 
I have heard was never to support an unjust cause. This I acknowledge 
would frequently be a difficult point to determine but cases might often 
occur when the injustice might be palpable. Another rule of conduct 
(which applies more to political than professional life) was never to 
support a party further than his conscience & judgment approved. This 
rule I most earnestly recommend for adoption as calculated to secure not 
only your own approbation but also the approval of all wise & good men: 
I trust there is no occasion to caution you against forming associations 
calculated to lead into , immoralities or dissipations, as your own good 
sense, moral habits, & experience in life, will sufficiently guard you. . . . 
It is now ... to remit you $50 or 100 if necessary. You can let mc know 
f how} much & when you will want it. We are all tolerably well & unite 
in affect remembrances & best wishes for yr. success. I remain yr. affect. 
Father 

Hy. Hollyday 



Beteler—^ho was the father of Walter Boteler (October 22, 1763- 
August 22, 1829) ? He married Jemima Davis on December 15, 1785. 
Please cite jwocrf. 

Reply to Editor, Maryland Historical Magazine. 



Summers — ^Wanted: Maiden name of Mary Summers, wife of 

John Summers (who died 1769, Prince George's Co., Md.). She was 
probably born about 1704 and is thought to have been Mary Moore 
(daughter of James, Sr.). Should like pioof and list of sisters and 
brothers. 

Beulah J. Johnson, 
625 Huckins Hotel, Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Wells — Can any one give any data about Thomas Wells of Calvert Co., 
Md., an early Maryland settler who removed to Albemarle Co., Virginia 
before 1779.'' Would like to correspond with someone of that descent. 

Mrs. Anna M. Halsey, 
2306 Happy Hollow Blvd., Omaha, Nebr. 



r 



276 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Rouse, Busey, Philpot. — ^Wish information regarding members of these 
families who were in military or naval service during the Revolution, par- 
ticularly the line of James Rouse, born July 1, 1799, in Ohio, of Mary- 
land ancestry. His wife was Edith Busey, born Nov. 18, 1802, in Ken- 
tucky. Also data on Matthew Bussey or Busey, born April 9, 1742, who 
married Edith Philpot (born in Md 1740), widow of Wilcoxen. 

Miss Emma M. Rouse, 
625 Jackson St., Anoka, Mimi. 



Contributors to This Number 

Ralph Robinson is a former president of the Baltimore Bar Associa- 
tion. He contributed an article on the treatment of prisoners in the War 
of 1812 to the American Historical Review for October, 1943, and to the 
Maryland Historical Magazine for September, 1942, on fresh findings 
concerning the British in Maryland in 1814. i:i Dr. William D. Hoyt, 
Jr., a frequent contributor to the Magazine, needs no introduction Dr. 
Frank B. Jewett, vice-president of the American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company and chief of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, spared time 
from his busy days to indulge, largely for the benefit of the Society, in a 
retrospective view of the significance of Morse's invention. -iV Formerly 
corresponding secretary of the Society, J. Alexis Shriver is a leading 
authority on events in Maryland past and present and the author of nearly 
all the road markers of the State which afford so much pleasure to history- 
minded wayfarers.